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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____________ to ____________
Commission file number 001-15827
VISTEON CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
State ofDelaware38-3519512
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Village Center Drive,Van Buren Township,Michigan48111
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800)-VISTEON
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareVC
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer,” "smaller reporting company"  and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer    Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2023 (the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $4.0 billion.
As of February 8, 2024, the registrant had outstanding 27,491,477 shares of common stock.
Document Incorporated by Reference
DocumentWhere Incorporated
2024 Proxy StatementPart III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14)
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Visteon Corporation and Subsidiaries
Index
Part I
Page
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Part II
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Part III
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Part IV
Signatures
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Part I

Item 1.Business

Description of Business

Visteon Corporation (the "Company" or "Visteon") is a global automotive technology company serving the mobility industry, dedicated to creating more enjoyable, connected, and safe driving experiences. The Company's platforms leverage proven, scalable hardware and software solutions that enable the digital, electric, and autonomous evolution of the Company's global automotive customers, including BMW, Ford, Geely, General Motors, Honda, Jaguar/Land Rover, Mahindra, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Renault, Stellantis, Tata, Toyota, and Volkswagen. Visteon products align with key industry trends and include digital instrument clusters, domain controllers with integrated advanced driver assistance systems ("ADAS"), displays, Android-based infotainment systems, and battery management systems. Visteon is headquartered in Van Buren Township, Michigan, and has an international network of manufacturing operations, technical centers, and joint venture operations dedicated to the design, development, manufacture, and support of its product offerings and its global customers. The Company's manufacturing and engineering footprint is primarily located in Brazil, Bulgaria, China, India, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Slovakia, Thailand, and Tunisia.

The Company’s Industry
The Company operates in the automotive industry which is cyclical and highly sensitive to general economic conditions. The Company believes that future success in the automotive industry is, in part, dependent on alignment with customers to support their efforts to effectively meet the challenges associated with the following significant trends and developments in the global automotive industry:
Electronic content and connectivity - The electronic content of vehicles continues to increase due to various regulatory requirements and consumer demand for increased vehicle performance and functionality. The use of electronic components can reduce weight, expedite assembly, enhance fuel economy, improve emissions, increase safety, and enhance vehicle performance. These benefits coincide with vehicles becoming more electric, connected, and automated. Additionally, digital and portable technologies have dramatically influenced the lifestyle of today’s consumers, who expect products that enable such a lifestyle. Consequently, the vehicle cockpit is transforming into a fully digital and connected environment with multi-display systems incorporating larger, curved, and more complex displays and the consolidation of discrete electronic control units into a multi-core domain controller.
Electric vehicles – The trend towards electrification continues, driven by government incentives and standards, announced restrictions of internal combustion engine vehicles in multiple cities and countries, and the significant investments in electrification by Original Equipment Manufacturers ("OEMs"). Battery electric vehicles can have increased digital content with all-digital cockpit electronics and require a battery management system to manage the rechargeable battery pack.

Advanced driver assistance systems and autonomous driving - The industry continues to advance toward semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles. The Society of Automotive Engineers has defined five levels of autonomy ranging from levels one and two with driver-assist functions whereby the driver is responsible for monitoring the environment, to level five with full autonomy under all conditions. Levels one and two are already popular in the market. Levels three and above utilize a combination of sensors, radars, cameras and LiDARs, requiring sensor fusion and machine learning technologies, as the system assumes the role of monitoring the environment. Level three includes features such as highway pilot and parking assist technology, for which an increased market penetration rate is expected over the next several years.
Safety and security - Governments continue to focus regulatory efforts on safer transportation. Accordingly, OEMs are working to improve occupant and pedestrian safety by incorporating more safety-oriented technology in their vehicles. Additionally, in-vehicle connectivity has increased the need for robust cybersecurity systems to protect data, applications, and associated infrastructure. Security features are evolving with advances in sensors and suppliers must enable the security/safety initiatives of their customers including the development of such new advances.

Vehicle standardization - OEMs continue to standardize vehicle platforms on a global basis, resulting in a lower number of individual vehicle platforms, design cost savings, and further scale of economies through the production of a greater number of models from each platform. Having operations in the geographic markets where OEMs produce global platforms enables suppliers to meet OEMs’ needs more economically and efficiently, thus making global coverage a source of significant competitive advantage for suppliers with a global footprint. Additionally, OEMs are looking to suppliers for increased collaboration to lower costs, reduce risks, and decrease overall time to market. Suppliers that can provide fully
3


engineered systems and pre-assembled combinations of component parts are positioned to leverage the trend toward system sourcing. As vehicles become more connected and cockpits more digitized, suppliers that can deliver modular hardware architectures, “open” software architectures, and a software platform approach will be poised to help OEMs achieve greater reuse of validated hardware circuitry, design scalability, and faster development cycles.
The Company's Segment
The Company reports operating and financial results in a single segment based on the consolidated information used by management in evaluating the financial performance of our business and allocating resources. This single segment reflects the Company’s core business; Electronics. The Electronics segment provides vehicle cockpit electronics products to customers, including digital instrument clusters, domain controllers with integrated advanced driver assistance systems ("ADAS") displays, Android-based infotainment systems, and battery management systems. As the Company has one reportable segment, net sales, total assets, depreciation, amortization and capital expenditures are equal to consolidated results.

The Company’s Products
The Company designs and manufactures innovative automotive electronics and connected car solutions further described below:

Instrument Clusters
The Company offers a full line of instrument clusters, from standard analog gauge clusters to high-resolution, all-digital, fully reconfigurable, 2-D and 3-D display-based devices. The Company uses a platform approach to accelerate development and manage multiple vehicle variants. These clusters can use a wide range of display technologies, graphic capabilities, decorative elements, and free-form and curved displays. Premium clusters support complex graphics and feature embedded functionality such as driver monitoring, camera inputs, and ambient lighting.

Information Displays
The Company offers a range of information displays for various applications within the cockpit, incorporating a sleek profile, high perception quality displays and touch sensors designed to deliver high performance for the automotive market. These displays can integrate a range of user interface technologies and graphics management capabilities, such as active privacy, TrueColorTM enhancement, local dimming, cameras, optics, haptic feedback, and light effects. The Company offers a new generation of large, curved, complex multi-display modules with optical performance designed to be competitive with mobile devices. The Company's microZone™ display technology offers high contrast and brightness and a wide color gamut that enables automotive displays to cost-effectively achieve life-like imaging capability on par with consumer mobile devices, without sacrificing reliability or life span. The Company also developed the first bendable glass multi-display cockpit in the automotive industry.

Infotainment
The Company offers a range of infotainment and connected car solutions, including scalable Android infotainment for seamless connectivity including integration with Android Auto and Apple CarPlay technology for wireless smartphone projection. The company offers a display audio and embedded infotainment platform that is based on Android automotive operating system, enabling third-party developers to create apps easily through a software development kit and software simulation of the target hardware system. Additionally, Visteon offers an onboard artificial intelligence (“AI ”)-based voice assistant with natural language understanding.

SmartCore Cockpit Domain Controller

The Company offers SmartCore™, an automotive-grade, integrated domain controller approach, which can independently operate the infotainment system, instrument cluster, head-up display, rear-seat displays, and other features on a single, multi-core chip to improve efficiency, create a unified experience across products, and reduce power consumption and cost. The SmartCore domain controller includes: SmartCore Runtime, middleware enabling communication between domains and apps to be shown on any display; and SmartCore Studio, a PC-based configuration tool to generate hypervisor configurations. The SmartCore domain controller seamlessly connects the human machine interaction ("HMI") across an increasing number of display domains, such as surround view and in-cabin sensing of driver drowsiness, attentiveness, and facial recognition. The latest generation of SmartCore utilizes high performance computing technology and integrates processing of multiple camera
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inputs to deliver a set of advance driver assistance features. The latest generation of SmartCore is offered with a suite of connected services including an over the air ("OTA") update solution and an automotive App Store.
Battery Management Systems (“BMS”)

The Company offers configurable battery management systems that support both wired and wireless battery sensing and control. Visteon’s wireless BMS reliably and securely replaces wired communication between battery modules to improve the lifetime enterprise cost, battery weight, and packaging efficiency, and facilitates second-life battery repurposing. By providing a platform approach that can support multiple charging protocols and flexible battery pack architectures, Visteon provides a robust design-to-production strategy that enables advanced features that are fast-to-market.

High-Voltage Power Electronics

The Company offers integrated and scalable power electronics units that support conversion of grid-to-battery pack electric current. Visteon’s integrated power electronics solutions combine a bi-directional on-board charging module with a DC-to-DC converter to ensure a systems approach that maximizes power conversion efficiency. Visteon’s solution is scalable to support between 400-volt to 800-volt systems with higher rate battery charging speeds. Visteon’s design provides a solution that allows for fast-charging and high-efficiency in a packaging that reduces weight and space to improve overall system cost.

Telematics Solutions
The Company provides a cost-optimized, high-speed telematics control unit to enable secure connected car services, software updates, and data. The Company’s telematics solution uses a single hardware and flexible software architecture to support regional telematics service providers and mobile networks. The Company’s wireless gateway platform is designed to meet future connectivity requirements.
Body Domain Controller
The Company offers a range of body domain modules which integrate several functions such as central gateway, body controls, comfort, and vehicle access solutions into one device. This computing module allows Visteon's customers to implement in-house applications software into body controls for brand and market differentiation.

The Company’s Customers
The Company's ultimate customers are global vehicle manufacturers including BMW, Ford, Geely, General Motors, Honda, Jaguar/Land Rover, Mahindra, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Renault, Stellantis, Tata, Toyota, and Volkswagen.
The following is a summary of customers representing greater than 10 percent of the Company's annual net sales:
Percentage of Total Net Sales
December 31,
202320222021
Ford22 %22 %22 %
General Motors12 %%%

The Company typically supplies products to OEM customers through purchase orders, which are usually governed by general terms and conditions established by each OEM. Although the terms and conditions vary from customer to customer, they typically contemplate a relationship under which customers place orders for their requirements of specific components supplied for particular vehicles but are not required to purchase any minimum quantities. Individual purchase orders can be cancelled for cause, non-performance, and, in most cases, insolvency or certain change in control events. Additionally, many of Visteon's OEM customers have the option to terminate contracts for convenience; this option permits the OEM customers to impose pressure on pricing during the life of the vehicle program or issue purchase orders for less than the duration of the vehicle program. This has the potential to reduce the Company’s profit margin and increases the risk of loss of future sales under those purchase contracts.

The Company manufactures and ships based on customer release schedules, normally provided on a weekly basis, which can vary based on OEM automotive production or dealer inventory levels. Although customer programs typically extend to future periods and although there is an expectation that the Company will supply certain levels of OEM production in those future periods, customer agreements (including the applicable terms and conditions) do not necessarily constitute firm orders.
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The price related to these products are typically initially negotiated on an annual basis over the vehicle platform's life cycle. To the extent there are subsequent contractual price reductions, these reductions are intended to reflect the Company's ability to reduce cost through such factors as manufacturing productivity enhancements, material cost reductions, and design-related cost improvements. Certain products may be excluded from such reductions or experience price increases due to shortages of material or other increases in supply chain or other related costs. The Company has an aggressive cost control program that focuses on reducing its total costs intended to offset customer price reductions or negotiating recoveries for increases. However, there can be no assurance that the Company’s cost reduction or recovery efforts will be sufficient to fully offset such price changes.

The terms and conditions generally require a warranty on products sold. In most cases, the warranty period is the same as the warranty offered by the OEM to the ultimate customer. The Company may also be required to share in all or part of recall costs if the OEM recalls vehicles for defects attributable to Visteon products.

The Company’s Competition
The automotive sector remains highly competitive resulting from the ongoing industry consolidation. OEMs rigorously evaluate suppliers on the basis of financial viability, product quality, price competitiveness, technical expertise, development capability, new product innovation, reliability and timeliness of delivery, product design, manufacturing capability, flexibility, customer service, and overall management. The Company's primary independent competitors include, but are not limited to, Alpine Electronics, Aptiv PLC, Continental AG, Denso Corporation, Forvia, Harman International Industries, Incorporated (a subsidiary of Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.), Hitachi Ltd., Hyundai Mobis, Innolux Corporation, LG Electronics, Marelli Holdings Co., Ltd., Nippon Seiki, Panasonic Corporation, Preh GmbH, Robert Bosch GmbH, and Vitesco Technologies.
The Company’s Business Seasonality and Cyclicality

The Company’s business is moderately seasonal because its largest North American customers typically cease production for approximately two weeks in July for model year changeovers and approximately one week in December during the winter holidays. Customers in Europe historically shut down vehicle production during a portion of August and one week in December. In China, customers typically shut down approximately one week in early October and one week in January or February. Additionally, third-quarter automotive production is traditionally lower as new vehicle models enter production.

Corporate Sustainability and Social Responsibility

Attract and Retain

The Company’s ability to sustain and grow its business requires the recruitment, retention, and development of a highly skilled and diverse workforce. The Company’s Chief People Officer, reporting directly to Chief Executive Officer ("CEO"), oversees its global talent processes to attract, develop, and retain its employees. To attract the best talent, the Company offers market competitive compensation and benefits around the globe, annual and long-term incentive programs, and health and wellness benefits. The Company also provides a variety of resources to help its employees grow in their current roles and build new skills. Hundreds of online courses are available in the Company’s learning management system and individual development plans are encouraged for all of our employees. The Company continues to build tools to be used by leaders to develop employees in their current role and create new opportunities within the organization to learn and grow. Because retention of the employee base is significant to its business strategy, executive management discusses it with the Board of Directors on a regular basis.

Workforce

Visteon’s strength comes from a workforce of approximately 10,000 employees operating in approximately 17 countries globally. The Company's workforce is globally distributed with 28% of employees located in the Americas, 30% in Europe, 14% in China, and 28% in the Asia Pacific region. Visteon believes that all employees are leaders and expects leaders to drive operational and financial results and build strong teams.

Many of the Company’s employees are members of industrial trade unions and confederations within their respective countries. Often these organizations operate under collectively bargained contracts that are not specific to any one employer. The Company constantly works to establish and maintain positive, cooperative relations with its unions and work representatives around the world.

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Diversity and Inclusion

Diversity represents an environment where the contributions of all employees are encouraged and valued. As a global organization, the Company embraces human differences and harnesses the power of its employees’ varied backgrounds, cultures, and experiences because it is the right thing to do for its people and it creates a competitive business advantage. As of December 31, 2023, the percentage of Visteon's global workforce represented by females was approximately 39%.

The Company encourages many forms of communication such as global town hall employee meetings, informal small-group employee discussions, and an open-door policy so all employees have direct access to senior leadership and have the opportunity to ask questions, make suggestions, and provide input. As stated in one of the Company's four core beliefs and values, “We treat each other with respect and embrace our differences.”

Workplace Safety

The Company requires protective equipment, enforces comprehensive safety policies and procedures, and encourages its employees and leaders to continually look for ways to improve workplace safety. It has implemented and maintains a health and safety management system that is certified to the OHSAS 18001 or ISO 45001 standard.

Regulation

Visteon operates in a constantly evolving global regulatory environment and is subject to numerous and varying regulatory requirements for its product performance and material content. Visteon strives to identify potential regulatory and quality risks early in the design and development process and proactively manage them throughout the product lifecycle through the use of routine assessments, protocols, standards, performance measures, and audits. New regulations and changes to existing regulations are managed in collaboration with the OEM customers and implemented through Visteon’s global systems and procedures designed to ensure compliance with existing laws and regulations.

Visteon works collaboratively with a number of stakeholder groups including government agencies, customers, and suppliers to proactively engage in federal, state, and international public policy processes.

Environmental, Health, Safety, and Legal Matters

Visteon is involved in various lawsuits, claims and proceedings related to the operation of its businesses, including those pertaining to product liability, environmental, safety and health, intellectual property, employment, commercial and contractual matters, tax, and various other matters. Although the outcome of such lawsuits, claims and proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty and some may be disposed of unfavorably to Visteon, it is management's opinion that none of these will have a material adverse effect on Visteon's financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Costs related to such matters were not material to the periods presented. Further details are provided in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in Note 18, "Commitments and Contingencies," of the notes to consolidated financial statements.

Board Oversight of Environmental, Social, and Governance Practices

The Company and its Board of Directors believe positive and responsible business practices strengthen the Company, increase its connection with the stockholders, and helps it to better serve its customers and the communities in which it operates. The Company’s commitment to social responsibility extends to a variety of areas including the environment, anti-corruption and trade compliance, responsible sourcing, human rights, labor practices, and worker health and safety. In light of the continued importance of these matters, the Board of Directors and management have developed a multi-year road map to enhance the Company’s sustainability and social responsibility programs and disclosures, including assessment of the potential risks associated with climate change. This road map includes near-term environmental targets for 2025 aimed at reducing energy consumption, solid waste, water and the reduction of scope 1 and scope 2 CO2 emissions through the use of renewable energy. The Company’s longer term greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target for 2030 which includes scope 3 CO2 emissions, has been validated by the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) and the Company is working to be carbon neutral by 2040. Management provides regular reports and presentations to the Corporate Sustainability and Governance Committee regarding progress toward achieving these targets, and the full Board of Directors has oversight of the Company’s environmental and social initiatives as part of its strategic review of the Company’s operations, products and technologies.

The Company’s Product Research and Development

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The Company’s research and development efforts are intended to maintain leadership positions in core products and provide the Company with a competitive edge as it seeks additional business with new and existing customers. The Company also works with technology development partners, including customers, to develop technological capabilities and new products and applications.

The Company’s Intellectual Property

The Company owns significant intellectual property, including a number of patents, copyrights, proprietary tools and technologies, trade secrets, and numerous licensing arrangements. Although the Company’s intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining its competitive position, no single patent, copyright, proprietary tool or technology, trade secret or license, or group of related patents, copyrights, proprietary tools or technologies, trade secrets or licenses is of such value to the Company that its business would be materially affected by the expiration or termination thereof. The Company’s general policy is to apply for patents on an ongoing basis, in appropriate countries, on its patentable developments that are considered to have commercial significance. The Company also views its name and mark as significant to its business as a whole. In addition, the Company holds rights in a number of other trade names and marks applicable to certain of its businesses and products that it views as important to such businesses and products.

The Company’s International Operations

Financial information about sales and net property by major geographic region can be found in Note 19, "Revenue recognition and Geographical Information" to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

The Company’s Raw Materials and Suppliers

Raw materials used by the Company in the manufacture of its products include electronics components, resins, and precious metals. While generally the supply of the materials used are available from numerous sources, semiconductor suppliers and silicon wafer production is concentrated. In general, the Company does not carry inventories of raw materials in excess of those reasonably required to meet production, shipping schedules, and customer safety stock requirements. The Company monitors its supply base and endeavors to work with suppliers and customers to mitigate the impact of potential material shortages and supply disruptions.

The Company, along with automotive companies around the world, has in recent years experienced a shortage in semiconductors as a result of the inability of semiconductor suppliers to rapidly reallocate production to serve the automotive industry during a time of increased demand. The Company's semiconductor suppliers, along with most automotive component supply companies that use semiconductors, were unable to fully meet the vehicle production demands of its customers due to events which were outside the Company's control. While the supply situation has improved, the Company continues to work closely with suppliers and customers to minimize potential adverse impacts of these events.

The automotive supply industry is subject to inflationary pressures with respect to raw materials, labor, and associated freight costs, which can place operational and financial burdens on the entire supply chain. Accordingly, the Company continues to take actions with its customers and suppliers to mitigate the impact of these inflationary pressures in the future. Actions to mitigate inflationary pressures with customers include collaboration on alternative product designs and material specifications, contractual price escalation clauses, and negotiated customer recoveries. Actions to mitigate inflationary pressures with suppliers include aggregation of purchase requirements to achieve optimal volume benefits, negotiation of cost reductions, and identification of more cost competitive suppliers. While these actions are designed to offset the impact of inflationary pressures, the Company cannot provide assurance that it will be successful in fully offsetting increased costs resulting from inflationary pressures.
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The Company’s Website and Access to Available Information
The Company’s current and periodic reports filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), including amendments to those reports, may be obtained through its internet website at www.visteon.com free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company files these reports with the SEC. A copy of the Company’s code of business conduct and ethics for directors, officers and employees of Visteon and its subsidiaries, entitled “Ethics and Integrity Policy,” the Corporate Governance Guidelines adopted by the Company’s Board of Directors and the charters of each committee of the Board of Directors are also available on the Company’s website. A printed copy of the Company’s Ethics and Integrity Policy may be requested by contacting the Company’s Investor Relations department in writing at One Village Center Drive, Van Buren Township, MI 48111; by phone (734) 710-7893; or via email at investor@visteon.com. The Company’s website and the information contained therein or connected thereto are not intended to be incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 1A.Risk Factors
Set forth below are some of the most significant risks and uncertainties facing the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties, including those not presently known or that the Company believes to be immaterial, also may adversely affect the Company. Should any such risks and uncertainties develop into actual events, these developments could have material adverse effects on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, cash flow and/or the value of the Company’s securities. This information should be considered in connection with the description of the Company’s business, Management’s Discussion & Analysis, and the Company’s financial statements and accompanying notes.

Operations Related Risk Factors

The Company could be negatively impacted by shortages in deliveries from its supply base, other supplier distress, or suppliers demanding price increases

In an effort to manage and reduce the costs of purchased goods and services, the Company, like many automotive suppliers and automakers, has been consolidating its supply base. As a result, the Company is dependent on single or limited sources of supply for certain components used in the manufacture of its products including semiconductor chips, which are integral components of new vehicles and are embedded in multiple vehicle systems, including cockpit electronics. As a result of the semiconductor shortages in recent years, the Company continues to work closely with its suppliers and customers to minimize any potential adverse impacts of the semiconductor supply shortage and monitor the availability of semiconductor microchips and other component parts and raw materials, customer vehicle production schedules, and any other supply chain inefficiencies that may arise, due to this or any other issue. If shortages of semiconductors or other critical components from other suppliers develop, continue longer than anticipated, or worsen, it could impact the Company's ability to meet its production schedules for some of its key products or to ship such products to its customers in a timely fashion. Furthermore, unfavorable economic or industry conditions could result in financial distress within the Company's supply base, thereby increasing the risk of supply disruption.

Such disruptions could be caused by any one of a myriad of potential problems, such as closures of one of the Company’s or its suppliers’ plants or critical manufacturing lines due to strikes, manufacturing quality issues, mechanical breakdowns, electrical outages, fires, explosions, or political upheaval, as well as logistical complications due to weather, global climate change, volcanic eruptions, or other natural or nuclear disasters, mechanical failures, delayed customs processing, the spread of an infectious disease, virus or other widespread illness and more. Additionally, as the Company grows in best cost countries, the risk for such disruptions is heightened. Similarly, a potential quality issue could force the Company to halt deliveries while it validates the products. Even where products are ready to be shipped, or have been shipped, delays may arise before they reach the customer. The Company’s customers may halt or delay production if one of their other suppliers fails to deliver necessary components. This may cause the Company’s customers to suspend their orders or instruct us to suspend delivery of the Company's products, which may adversely affect the Company's financial performance.

If the Company were to fail to make timely deliveries in accordance with contractual obligations, the Company generally must absorb its own costs for identifying and solving the “root cause” problem as well as expeditiously producing replacement components or products. Generally, the Company must also absorb the costs associated with “catching up,” such as overtime and premium freight. Additionally, if the Company is the cause for a customer being forced to halt production the customer may seek to recoup all of its losses and expenses from the Company. Certain customers have communicated that they expect such reimbursement and are reserving their rights to claim damages arising from supply shortages. The Company believes it has a number of legal defenses to such claims and intends to defend any potential claims vigorously. Should the company be unsuccessful in their defense, these losses and expenses could be significant, and may include consequential losses such as lost
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profits. Any supply-chain disruption, however small, could cause the complete shutdown of an assembly line of one of the Company’s customers, and any such shutdown could lead to material claims for compensation.

The Company has experienced and may in the future experience supplier price increases that could negatively affect its operations and profitability. The price increases are often driven by raw material pricing and availability, component or part availability, manufacturing capacity, industry allocations, logistics capacity, natural disasters or pandemics, the effects of climate change, inflation, and significant changes in the financial or business condition of its suppliers

The Company’s substantial international operations make it vulnerable to risks associated with doing business in foreign countries

The Company has manufacturing and distribution facilities in many foreign locations. International operations are subject to certain risks inherent in doing business abroad, including, but not limited to:
changes to international trade agreements;
local economic conditions, expropriation and nationalization, foreign exchange rate fluctuations, and currency controls;
withholding, border, and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries;
investment restrictions or requirements;
export and import restrictions, including increases in border tariffs;
the ability to effectively enforce intellectual property rights;
new or additional governmental sanctions on doing business with or in certain countries or with certain persons; and
increases in working capital requirements related to long supply chains.

Additionally, the Company’s global operations may also be adversely affected by political events, domestic or international terrorist events, and hostilities or complications due to natural or other disasters. These or any further political or governmental developments or health concerns in Mexico, China, or other countries in which the Company operates or where its suppliers are located could result in social, economic, and labor instability. These uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on the continuity of the Company’s business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Trade negotiations are ongoing, notably between the U.S. and Chinese governments. However, given the uncertainty regarding the negotiations, including the potential for additional tariffs or trade barriers by or between the U.S., China (including but not limited to the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act), or other countries, the Company can provide no assurance that any strategies we implement to mitigate the impact of any trade actions will be successful.

The Company has invested significantly and is expected to continue to invest in joint ventures with other parties to conduct business in China and elsewhere in Asia. These investments may include manufacturing operations, technical centers, and research and development activities, to support anticipated growth in the region. If the Company is not able to strengthen existing relationships, secure additional customers, and develop market-relevant electrification, advanced driver assistance, and semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicle technologies, it may fail to realize expected rates of return on these investments.

In addition, failure of the Company’s joint venture partners to comply with contractual commitments or to exert influence or pressure in China may impact the Company’s operations, financial condition and cash flow. For example, as previously disclosed, during the second quarter of 2022, the Company recorded a settlement charge related to a contract dispute with a joint venture partner in China and during the fourth quarter of 2022 the Company incurred approximately $19 million of program management costs and other charges with that joint venture partner. Although those disputes were resolved, the Company cannot predict the outcome of future interactions and it is possible that any future disputes and/or changes to the contractual obligations with the joint venture partner could have a material impact on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow.

The Company’s ability to effectively operate could be hindered if it fails to attract and retain key personnel

The Company’s ability to operate its business and implement its strategies effectively depends, in part, on the efforts of its executive officers and other key employees. In addition, the Company’s future success will depend on, among other factors, the ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, particularly engineers and other employees with critical expertise and skills that support key customers and products or in emerging regions. The loss of the services of any key employees, and particularly the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, or the failure to attract or retain other qualified personnel could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, ability to secure future programs, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow.

Work stoppages and similar events could significantly disrupt the Company’s business
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Because the automotive industry relies heavily on just-in-time delivery of components during the assembly and manufacture of vehicles, a work stoppage at one or more of the Company’s manufacturing and assembly facilities could have material adverse effects on the business. Similarly, if one or more of the Company’s customers were to experience a work stoppage, that customer would likely halt or limit purchases of the Company’s products, which could result in the shutdown of the related manufacturing facilities. A significant disruption in the supply of a key component due to a work stoppage at any of the Company’s suppliers or sub-suppliers, or reduced orders from the Company’s customers as a result of work stoppages, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow.

Industry and Competition Related Risk Factors

The Company may not realize sales represented by awarded business

The Company estimates awarded business using certain assumptions, including projected future sales volumes based on data from OEM customers and industry benchmarks. The OEM customers do not generally guarantee production volumes. In addition, awarded business may include business under arrangements that OEM customers have the right to terminate, at any time, without penalty. Therefore, the Company’s actual sales volumes, and thus the ultimate amount of revenue that it derives from such sales, are not guaranteed. If actual production orders from its customers are not consistent with the projections used by the Company in calculating the amount of its awarded business, the Company could realize substantially less revenue over the life of these projects than the projected estimate.

The Company must continue to develop, introduce, and achieve market acceptance of new and enhanced products in order to grow its sales in the future

The growth of the Company's business will be dependent on the demand for innovative automotive electronics products, including but not limited to electrification, advanced driver assistance, semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicle technologies. In order to increase sales in current markets and gain entry into new markets, the Company must innovate to maintain and improve existing products, including software, while successfully developing and introducing distinctive new and enhanced products that anticipate changing customer and consumer preferences and capitalize upon emerging software technologies. However, the Company may experience difficulties that delay or prevent the development, introduction, or market acceptance of its new or enhanced products. Furthermore, these new technologies have also attracted increased competition from outside the traditional automotive industry, and any of these competitors may develop and introduce technologies that gain greater customer or consumer acceptance, which could have a material adverse effect on the future growth of the Company.

The automotive industry is cyclical and significant declines in the production levels of the Company’s major customers could reduce the Company’s sales and harm its profitability

Demand for the Company’s products is directly related to the automotive vehicle production of the Company’s major customers. Automotive sales and production are cyclical and can be affected by general economic or industry conditions, labor relations issues, fuel prices, regulatory requirements, government initiatives, trade agreements, the cost and availability of credit, and other factors. Due to overall global economic conditions, including semiconductor shortages and supply chain disruptions, the automotive industry experienced constrained production schedules in recent years. Such shortages and constrained production schedules had and may in the future have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, profitability, financial condition and results of operations.

The discontinuation or loss of business, or lack of commercial success, with respect to a particular product for which the Company is a significant supplier could reduce the Company’s sales and harm its profitability

Although the Company has purchase orders from many of its customers, these purchase orders generally provide for the supply of a customer’s annual requirements for a particular vehicle model and assembly plant, or in some cases, for the supply of a customer’s requirements for the life of a particular vehicle model, rather than for the purchase of a specific quantity of products. In addition, certain customers have communicated an intent to manufacture components internally that are currently produced by outside suppliers, such as the Company. If the Company's OEM customers successfully insource products currently manufactured by the Company the discontinuation or loss of business for products which the Company is a significant supplier could reduce the Company’s sales and harm the Company’s profitability.

Price pressures from customers may adversely affect the Company’s business

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Downward pricing pressures by automotive OEMs, while characteristic of the automotive industry, are increasing. Virtually all automakers have implemented aggressive price-reduction initiatives and objectives each year with their suppliers, and such actions are expected to continue in the future. In addition, estimating such amounts is subject to risk and uncertainties because any price reductions are a result of negotiations and other factors. Accordingly, suppliers must be able to reduce their operating costs in order to maintain profitability. Price reductions have impacted the Company’s sales and profit margins and are expected to continue to do so in the future. If the Company is unable to offset customer price reductions in the future through improved operating efficiencies, new manufacturing processes, sourcing alternatives, and other cost-reduction initiatives, the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow could be adversely affected.

The Company is highly dependent on Ford Motor Company and decreases in this customer’s vehicle production volumes would adversely affect the Company

Ford is one of the Company’s largest ultimate customers and accounted for 22% of sales for each of the years 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Accordingly, any change in Ford's vehicle production volumes may have a significant impact on the Company’s sales volume and profitability.

The Company’s pension expense and funding levels of pension plans could materially deteriorate, or the Company may be unable to generate sufficient excess cash flow to meet increased pension benefit obligations

The Company’s assumptions used to calculate pension obligations as of the annual measurement date directly impact the expense to be recognized in future periods. While the Company’s management believes that these assumptions are appropriate, significant differences in actual experience or significant changes in these assumptions may materially affect the Company’s pension obligations and future expense. For more information on sensitivities to changing assumptions, please see “Critical Accounting Estimates” in Item 7 and Note 11, “Employee Benefit Plans” in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Product Related Risk Factors

The Company's inability to effectively manage the timing, quality, and costs of new program launches could adversely affect its financial performance

In connection with the award of new business, the Company often obligates itself to deliver new products and services that are subject to its customers’ timing, performance, and quality standards. Additionally, as a Tier 1 supplier, the Company must effectively coordinate the activities of numerous suppliers in order to launch programs successfully. Given the complexity of new program launches, especially involving new and innovative technologies, the Company may experience difficulties managing timeliness and detecting undiscovered software errors, bugs, and other defects in its products which may injure the Company's reputation. In addition, new program launches require a significant ramp up of costs; however, the sales related to these new programs generally are dependent upon the timing and success of the introduction of new vehicles by the Company's customers. The Company's inability to effectively manage the timing, quality, and costs of these new program launches could have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow.

Warranty claims, product liability claims, and product recalls could adversely affect the Company

The Company faces the inherent business risk of exposure to warranty and product liability claims in the event that its products fail to perform as expected or such failure results, or is alleged to result, in bodily injury or property damage (or both). In addition, if any of the Company’s supplied products are defective or are alleged to be defective, the Company may be required to participate in a recall campaign. The Company’s products contain increasingly significant amounts of software and a successful cyberattack on such products could cause materially adverse effects on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, cash flow, and reputation. In addition, as the Company expands its electrification product offering, including its battery management systems, such products will present a different warranty and product liability risk profile. As suppliers become more integrally involved in the vehicle design process and assume more of the vehicle assembly functions, automakers are increasingly expecting them to warrant their products and are increasingly looking to suppliers for contributions when faced with product liability claims or recalls. A successful warranty or product liability claim against the Company, or a requirement that the Company participate in a product recall campaign, could have materially adverse effects on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow.

Developments or assertions by or against the Company relating to intellectual property rights could materially impact its business

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The Company owns significant intellectual property, including a number of patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets and is involved in numerous licensing arrangements. The Company’s intellectual property plays an important role in maintaining its competitive position in a number of the markets served. The Company may directly or through a supplied component utilize intellectual property in its products that requires a license from a third-party. While the Company believes that such licenses generally can be obtained by the Company, or supplier if a supplied component, there is no assurance that the necessary licenses can be obtained on commercially acceptable terms or at all. Failure by the Company or its suppliers to obtain the right to use third-party intellectual property could preclude the Company from selling certain products, and developments or assertions by or against the Company relating to intellectual property rights, could have materially adverse effects on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow.

The Company also derives significant revenue from countries outside the U.S. (including China) and significant intellectual property assets are licensed to joint ventures and customers in foreign jurisdictions. If a material intellectual property theft or forced transfer were to occur, it could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow. In addition, the Company has continued to see an increase in patent claims related to connectivity-enabled products where other patent-holding companies are seeking royalties and often enter into litigation based on patent infringement allegations. Significant technological developments by others also could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flow.

Advances in AI technology may generate developments against which existing intellectual property laws may not adequately protect and which may also give rise to a proliferation of infringement which we may not be able to address effectively.

Privacy and security concerns (including cyber security) relating to the Company's current or future products and services could have a material adverse impact on our business, damage its reputation and deter current and potential users from using them

The Company’s products and services contain digital technology designed to support connected vehicles, and for some products may also collect and store sensitive end-user data (that may include personally identifiable information). Despite the security and risk-prevention measures the Company has implemented, including related to cybersecurity, our products or services could be breached, damaged, taken over, or otherwise interrupted by a system failure, cyberattack, malicious computer software (including malware or ransomware), unauthorized physical or electronic access, or other natural or man-made incidents or disasters. Failure of the Company’s products or services to effectively protect against these vulnerabilities can damage its reputation and adversely affect its operating results.

Further, through our products or services, the Company may gain access to sensitive, confidential, or personal data or information that is subject to privacy and security laws, regulations, and customer-imposed controls. Concerns about the Company's practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of personal information or other privacy related matters, even if unfounded, could damage its reputation and adversely affect its operating results.

Regulatory authorities around the world are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning cybersecurity and data protection. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws in the U.S., Europe, and elsewhere are often uncertain and in flux. Complying with these various laws could cause the Company to incur substantial costs.

Tax Related Risk Factors

The Company’s expected annual effective tax rate could be volatile and could materially change as a result of changes in mix of earnings and other factors, including changes in tax laws and tax audits

We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and various international jurisdictions. Changes in tax rates or tax laws by U.S. and international jurisdictions and tax audits could adversely impact Visteon’s financial results. The Company is in a position whereby losses incurred in certain tax jurisdictions generally provide no current financial statement benefit. In addition, certain jurisdictions have statutory rates greater than or less than the United States statutory rate. As such, changes in the mix and source of earnings between jurisdictions, including changes in tax rates in those jurisdictions, could have a significant impact on the Company’s overall effective tax rate in future periods. Additionally, in the ordinary course of business, we are subject to examinations by various tax authorities. Tax authorities in various jurisdictions could also open new examinations and expand existing examinations for which the outcomes cannot be predicted with certainty. Furthermore, changes in U.S. or foreign tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, could also have a significant impact on the Company’s overall effective rate in future periods. For example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (the "OECD"), the European Union and other countries (including countries in which the Company operates) have committed to enacting
13


substantial changes to numerous long-standing tax principles impacting how large multinational enterprises are taxed. In particular, the OECD's Pillar Two initiative introduces a 15% global minimum tax applied on a country-by-country basis and for which many jurisdictions have now committed to an effective enactment date starting January 1, 2024. The impact of these potential new rules as well as any other changes in domestic and international tax rules and regulations could have a material effect on the Company’s overall effective tax rate.

The Company may not be able to fully utilize its U.S. net operating losses and other tax attributes

The Company has net operating losses ("NOLs") and other tax attributes which could be limited if there is a subsequent change of ownership. If the Company were to have a change of ownership within the meaning of IRC Sections 382 and 383, its NOLs and other tax attributes could be limited to an amount equal to its market capitalization at the time of the ownership change multiplied by the federal long-term tax exempt rate. The Company cannot provide any assurance that such an ownership change will not occur, in which case the availability of the Company's NOLs and other tax attributes could be significantly limited or possibly eliminated. Certain tax benefit preservation provisions of its corporate documents could delay or prevent a change of control, even if that change would be beneficial to stockholders.

Market Related Risk Factors

The Company is subject to significant foreign currency risks and foreign exchange exposure

As a result of Visteon's global presence, a significant portion of the Company's revenues and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. The Company is therefore subject to foreign currency risks and foreign exchange exposure. The Company's primary exposures are to the euro, Chinese renminbi, Brazilian real, Mexican peso, Thai bhat, Indian rupee, and Japanese yen. Volatility in certain exchange rates could adversely impact Visteon financial results and comparability of results from period to period.

General Risk Factors

A disruption to the Company's infrastructure of information technology systems, or those of our customers, supplies, sub-suppliers, partners, service providers or other contract parties, including because of cyberattack, could adversely affect its business and financial performance

The Company relies on the accuracy, capacity, and security of its infrastructure and information technology systems to conduct its business. The Company's systems have in the past and could in the future be breached, damaged, taken over, or otherwise interrupted by a system failure, cyberattack, malicious computer software (including malware or ransomware), unauthorized physical or electronic access, or other natural or man-made incidents or disasters. For example, on July 3, 2023, the Company experienced a disruption of certain IT services and assets at its third-party data center provider that resulted in some IT services experiencing interruptions and loss of data. These events have occurred with more frequency within our industry and are expected to continue (and possibly increase) moving forward. Any of these events could result in, amongst other things, the following to the Company or its customers, suppliers, sub-suppliers, or other contract parties: (i) a business disruption, including plant operations, (ii) theft of intellectual property, including trade secrets, or (iii) unauthorized access to personal information, including employee or end consumer personal information. Although the Company has placed a high priority on cybersecurity and continues to enhance (through investments) our controls, processes and practices designed to protect our operational systems and products from a breach, the company’s actions may not be quick enough to fully protect our operational systems and products against all vulnerabilities, including technologies developed to bypass our security measures. In addition, the company’s employees or customers may accidentally provide their access credentials or other sensitive information to bad actors who could gain access to our secure systems and networks. Nothing ensures that the company’s actions or investments to improve its systems, products, processes and risk management framework or remediate vulnerabilities will be sufficient or deployed quickly enough to prevent or limit the impact of any breach. Undetected or unrecognized breaches also create a risk to the Company since it takes time to first discover the breach and then patch the vulnerability. The Company also cannot anticipate all the various methods of attacks and have defenses prepared in advance against these types of attacks, and it cannot predict the extent, frequency or impact these attacks may have. To the extent a breach occurs as noted above, or data is lost, destroyed, or inappropriately used or disclosed, such disruptions could lead to legal claims against the Company and adversely affect the Company’s competitive position, reputation, relationships with customers, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows and/or subject us to regulatory actions, including those contemplated by data privacy laws and regulations. Moreover, the Company may be required to incur significant costs to protect against the damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future. The Company is also dependent on the security measures implemented by our customers, suppliers, and other third-party service providers to protect their own systems, infrastructures, and products. A breach that impacts any of these third-parties' systems could result in unauthorized access to the Company’s or
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its customers' or suppliers' sensitive data or the Company’s own information technology systems. It could also cause the Company to be non-compliant with applicable laws, subject us to legal claims, disrupt our operations, damage our reputation, or cause a loss of confidence in our products or services, any of which could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results, or cash flow.

The Company is involved from time to time in legal proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes, which could have an adverse effect on the Company

The Company is involved in legal proceedings and commercial or contractual disputes that, from time to time, are significant. These are typically claims that arise in the normal course of business including, without limitation, commercial or contractual disputes (including disputes with suppliers), intellectual property matters, personal injury claims, and employment matters. No assurances can be given that such proceedings and claims will not have a material adverse impact on the Company’s profitability and financial position.

Climate change, climate change regulations, and greenhouse gas effects could adversely impact the Company’s operations and markets

Increased attention to climate change and its association with greenhouse gas emissions, expectations for companies to establish short and long-term emissions reduction targets, and changes in consumer preferences may result in increased costs, reduced profits, risks associated with new regulatory requirements, and the potential for increased litigation and governmental investigations. The U.S. federal government, certain U.S. states, and certain other countries and regions have adopted or are considering legislation or regulation imposing overall caps or taxes on greenhouse gas emissions from certain sectors including automotive. Failure to comply with any legislation or regulation could result in substantial fines, criminal sanctions, or operational changes. Moreover, even without such legislation or regulation, increased awareness of, or any adverse publicity regarding, the effects of greenhouse gases could harm the Company’s reputation or reduce customer demand for its products and services. Automakers have also started implementing climate-related initiatives and objectives each year with their suppliers, and such actions are expected to continue in the future. If the Company is unable to meet these new requirements in the future through improved operating efficiencies, new manufacturing processes, sourcing alternatives, and other sustainability initiatives, the Company’s business could be adversely affected.

Additionally, as severe weather events become increasingly common, operations of the Company, its customers, and/or suppliers may be disrupted, which could result in increased operational costs or reduced demand for products and services. Natural disasters could cause disruption to the Company’s ability to serve its customers and communities in times of need and extended periods of disruption could have an adverse effect on its results of operations.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None

Item 1C.    Cybersecurity

Governance

Responsibility for assessing cybersecurity risk includes, but is not limited to, input from our Board of Directors (the "Board"), including the Audit Committee of the Board (the “Audit Committee”), senior management and the Crisis Management Team (a taskforce comprised of representatives from primary corporate and operational functions). These groups devote significant resources to cybersecurity and the risk management processes to adapt to the changing cybersecurity landscape and respond to emerging threats in a timely and effective manner. Visteon’s internal cyber information technology (“IT”) security team oversees and works collaboratively with various information security service providers using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) framework to regularly assess the threat landscape and support a layered cybersecurity strategy based on prevention, detection and mitigation.

The Company’s Chief Information Officer is responsible for developing and implementing our information security program and reporting on cybersecurity matters to the Audit Committee and to the full Board. Our Chief Information Officer has over two decades of experience leading cyber security oversight. The Cyber IT security team has multiple years of experience and/or are security certified (e.g., CISSP).

Risk Management, Strategy and Testing

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The Audit Committee and the full Board actively participate in discussions with management and amongst themselves regarding cybersecurity risks. The Audit Committee is updated quarterly on the Company’s cybersecurity status including discussion of management’s actions to identify and detect threats, as well as planned actions in the event of a response or recovery situation. The Audit Committee’s review also includes review of recent enhancements to the Company’s defenses and management’s progress on its cybersecurity strategic roadmap. In addition, at least two times per year, the full Board reviews key performance indicators, test results and related remediation, and recent threats and how the Company is managing those threats.

The Company’s cybersecurity risk management program incorporates external guidance and expertise through the use of third-party service providers to assist in the identification, assessment and management of risks specific to cybersecurity threats, including vendors providing threat intelligence, risk mitigation, dark web monitoring, external scanning and scoring, threat and reputation monitoring, forensics, cyber-insurance, advisory services and legal counsel. Visteon engages a managed security service provider to augment its cyber IT security team and to provide additional monitoring capabilities. Visteon’s cyber IT security team reviews enterprise risk management-level cybersecurity risks regularly, and key cybersecurity risks are incorporated into the annual corporate-wide Enterprise Risk Management assessment. In addition, we have a set of Company-wide policies and procedures concerning cybersecurity matters, which include an IT security manual as well as other policies that directly or indirectly relate to cybersecurity, such as policies related to encryption standards, antivirus protection, remote access, multifactor authentication, confidential information and the use of the internet, social media, email and wireless devices. The Company has also obtained Trusted Information Security Assessment Exchange (TISAX) certification labels at multiple global locations.

The Company periodically performs simulations and tabletop exercises at a management level and incorporates external resources and advisors as needed. All employees are required to periodically complete cybersecurity training and have access to more frequent cybersecurity training through online modules.

The company regularly tests defenses by performing simulations and drills at both a technical level (including through penetration tests) and by reviewing its operational policies and procedures with third-party experts. At the management level, our cyber IT security team regularly monitors alerts and meets to discuss threat levels, trends and remediation. Our cyber IT security team conducts regular reviews of third-party hosted applications with a specific focus on any sensitive data shared with third parties. Internal audit works with internal business owners of the hosted applications to document user access reviews annually and receive from the vendor a System and Organization Controls (“SOC”) report. If a third-party vendor is not able to provide a SOC 1 report, the Company takes additional steps to assess their cybersecurity preparedness and assess our relationship on that basis.

The Company has certain products it manufactures that are more susceptible to cybersecurity threats and for those products the Company has additional specific cybersecurity risk assessments and management processes in place that aligns our internal policies, standards and development practices with customer requirements and industry standards, including the International Organization for Standardization ("ISO") 21434 control framework specific to road vehicle cybersecurity engineering. Visteon’s product level cybersecurity management is led by a separate team within the engineering department with the leader of that team reporting at least twice per-year to the Technology Committee of the Board on the risks and processes related to product level cybersecurity threats.

Visteon faces a number of cybersecurity risks in connection with its business. Although such risks have not, to date, materially affected the Company or the results of operations or financial condition the Company has from time-to-time experienced threats to and breaches of its data and systems, including malware and computer virus attacks. Despite the extensive approach Visteon takes to cybersecurity, the Company may not be successful in preventing or mitigating a cybersecurity incident that could have a material adverse effect on the Company or its stakeholders. See Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for a discussion of cybersecurity risks.

Item 2.    Properties

The Company's principal executive offices are located in Van Buren Township, Michigan. At December 31, 2023, the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries owned or leased:

27 corporate offices, technical and engineering centers and customer service centers in 13 countries around the world, all of which were leased.
14 manufacturing and/or assembly facilities in Brazil, China, India, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Slovakia, Tunisia, and Thailand, of which 11 were leased and 3 were owned.
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In addition, the Company's non-consolidated affiliates operate 6 manufacturing and/or assembly locations, primarily in the Asia Pacific region. The Company considers its facilities to be adequate for its current uses.

Item 3.Legal Proceedings

From time to time, the Company is involved in various legal matters and proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. While the Company incurs costs, including but not limited to, attorneys’ fees, the Company does not currently expect any of these matters or proceedings to have a material effect on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows. Certain legal proceedings in which the Company is involved are discussed in Note 18, “Commitments and Contingencies” to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” and should be considered an integral part of Part I, Item 3, “Legal Proceedings.” 

Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures

None
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Item 4A. Information about Our Executive Officers
The following table shows information about the executive officers of the Company as of February 1, 2024:
NameAgePosition
Sachin S. Lawande56Director, President and Chief Executive Officer
Jerome J. Rouquet56Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Colleen E. Myers48Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
Brett D. Pynnonen55Senior Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
Joao Paulo Ribeiro54Senior Vice President, Manufacturing, Supply Chain, and Purchasing
Qais M. Sharif61Senior Vice President, and General Manager of the Americas and Energy Storage Solutions
Kristin E. Trecker58Senior Vice President and Chief People Officer
Robert R. Vallance63Senior Vice President, Global Customer Business Groups, New Technology Product Lines, and General Manager APAC Region

Sachin S. Lawande has been Visteon’s Chief Executive Officer, President, and a director of the Company since June 29, 2015. Before joining Visteon, Mr. Lawande served as Executive Vice President and President, Infotainment Division of Harman International Industries, Inc., an automotive supplier, from July 2013 to June 2015. From July 2011 to June 2013, he served as Executive Vice President and President of Harman’s Lifestyle Division, and from July 2010 to June 2011 as Executive Vice President and Co-President, Automotive Division. Prior to that he served as Harman’s Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer since February 2009. Mr. Lawande joined Harman International in 2006, following senior roles at QNX Software Systems and 3Com Corporation. He also serves on the board of directors of Cognex Corporation, a leading worldwide provider of machine vision products that are widely used in automotive, consumer electronics, life sciences, and logistics industries. Within the last five years, he also served on the board of directors of DXC Technology Company.
Jerome J. Rouquet has been Visteon’s Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since February 2020 (after joining the Company as Senior Vice President, Finance in January 2020). Prior to that, he held leadership roles of increasing responsibility at Federal-Mogul, LLC (a global automotive supplier), including Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from January 2016 to September 2018, Chief Accounting Officer and Controller from July 2010 to January 2016, and Finance Director from March 1999 to July 2010. Following the acquisition of Federal-Mogul by Tenneco, Inc., he most recently served as Senior Vice President Finance, Motorparts from October 2018 to December 2019. From 1990 to 1996, Mr. Rouquet served in various roles at Imaje SA, from Logistics Manager to Financial Controller.
Colleen E. Myers has been Visteon’s Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer since January 2024. Prior to the appointment, she was Assistant Controller since May 2021 and Senior Manager, Reporting and Consolidations since joining the Company in June 2015. Prior to that, she served as a financial reporting and internal audit supervisor at Masco Corporation and is a certified public accountant.
Brett D. Pynnonen has been Visteon’s Senior Vice President and Chief Legal Officer since December 2016. Prior to that, he was Vice President and General Counsel since joining the Company in March 2016. Before joining Visteon, he was Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Federal-Mogul Holdings Corporation, a global automotive supplier, from November 2007 to March 2016. Prior to that, he was General Counsel and Secretary of Covansys Corporation, a technology services company, and an attorney at the law firm of Butzel Long.
Joao Paulo Ribeiro has been Visteon’s Senior Vice President, Manufacturing, Supply Chain and Purchasing since November 2021. Prior to that he was Vice President, Manufacturing and Supply Chain since March 2020, Vice President, Manufacturing Operations since March 2014, and Managing Director, European Operations from October 2010 to March 2014. During his career with Visteon and Ford Motor Company, he has held management positions of increasing responsibility in manufacturing and operations.

Qais Sharif has been Visteon’s Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Americas and Energy Storage Solutions since November 2023. Prior to that he was, Vice President and General Manager of the Americas since December 2021, Vice President Displays Product Line since November 2019 and Vice President, Product Management Driver Information and Displays since joining the Company in August 2016. Prior to joining Visteon, Mr. Sharif was Vice President, Information Technology and Mobile USA Sales and Marketing at LG Display Company, an automotive supplier, and Global Vice President of Sales at TE Connectivity, a consumer electronics company.
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Kristin E. Trecker has been Visteon’s Senior Vice President and Chief People Officer since joining the Company in May 2018. Before joining Visteon, she served as Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer (“CHRO”) for Integer Holdings Corp. (formerly Greatbatch, Inc.), a medical device outsource manufacturer, from November 2015 to May 2017, and as Senior Vice President and CHRO of MTS Systems Corp., a global engineering firm, from February 2012 to October 2015. Prior to that Ms. Trecker spent 16 years with Lawson Software, Inc. in roles of increasing responsibility, ranging from Director of Compensation and Benefits to Senior Vice President of Human Resources.

Robert R. Vallance has been Visteon’s Senior Vice President, Global Customer Business Groups, New Technology Product Lines, and General Manager APAC Region since January 2022, and prior to that, he was Senior Vice President, Customer Business Groups since December 2016. He also served as Vice President, Customer Business Groups upon rejoining the Company in July 2014. From February 2008 to June 2014, he served as Vice President, Electronics Business Group of Johnson Controls, Inc., an automotive supplier. Prior to that, he spent 23 years at Ford Motor Company and Visteon in product development, program and commercial management, strategy and planning, product marketing, and manufacturing.


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Part II

Item 5.Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company's common stock, $0.01 par value per share, trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "VC". As of February 8, 2024, the Company had 2,725 shareholders of record.
No dividends were paid by the Company on its common stock during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. The Company’s Board evaluates the Company’s dividend policy based on all relevant factors. The Company’s credit agreements limit the amount of cash payments for dividends that may be made. Additionally, the ability of the Company’s subsidiaries to transfer dividends is subject to various restrictions, including regulatory requirements and governmental restraints.
No sales of the Company’s common stock were made by or on behalf of the Company or an affiliated purchaser during the fourth quarter of 2023.
On March 2, 2023 the Company's board of directors authorized a share repurchase program of $300 million of common stock through December 31, 2026. Under this program, the Company will repurchase shares at the prevailing market prices pursuant to specified share price and daily volume limits. As of December 31, 2023, the Company has $194 million of authorized purchases of common stock remaining.
The following table summarizes information relating to purchases made by or on behalf of the Company, or an affiliated purchaser, of shares of the Company’s common stock during the fourth quarter of 2023.
PeriodTotal Number of Shares (or Units) Purchased (1)Average Price Paid per Share (or Unit)Total Number of Shares (or units) Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (2)Approximate Dollar Value of Shares (or Units) that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (in millions)
October 1 to October 31, 202376,515 132.76 76,515 214 
November 1 to November 31, 2023— — — 214 
December 1 to December 31, 2023161,238 124.04 161,238 194 
Total237,753 126.85 237,753 194 
(1) The Company does not include shares surrendered to pay taxes incurred upon exercises of stock options for purposes of this Item 5 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(2) The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which was enacted into law on August 16, 2022, imposed a nondeductible 1% excise tax on the net value of certain stock repurchases made after December 31, 2022. All dollar amounts presented exclude such excise taxes, as applicable.
The following information in Item 5 is not deemed to be “soliciting material” or be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”) or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act, except to the extent the Company specifically incorporates it by reference into such a filing.
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Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023, for Visteon's existing common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones U.S. Auto Parts Index. The graph below assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2018 in each of the Company's common stock, the stocks comprising the S&P 500 Index and the stocks comprising the Dow Jones U.S. Auto Parts Index, and that all dividends have been reinvested.

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December 31, 2018December 31, 2019December 31, 2020December 31, 2021December 31, 2022December 31, 2023
Visteon Corporation$100.00$143.65$208.23$184.37$217.04$207.20
Dow Jones U.S. Auto Parts Index$100.00$121.42$145.84$166.84$123.06$125.33
S&P 500$100.00$128.88$149.83$190.13$153.16$190.27
The above comparisons are required by the Securities and Exchange Commission and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of the Company's common stock or the referenced indices.
Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
None
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Item 7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is intended to help the reader understand the results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows of the Company. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing in Item 8 of this Form 10-K “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”. For discussion related to changes in financial condition and the results of operations for fiscal year 2022-related items, refer to Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal year 2022, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 16, 2023.

Executive Summary
Strategic Priorities
Visteon is a global automotive technology company serving the mobility industry, dedicated to creating more enjoyable, connected, and safe driving experiences. The Company's platforms leverage proven, scalable hardware and software solutions that enable the digital, electric, and autonomous evolution of its global automotive customers. The automotive mobility market is expected to grow faster than underlying vehicle production volumes as the vehicle shifts from analog to digital and towards device and cloud connected, electric vehicles, and vehicles with more advanced safety features.
The Company has laid out the following strategic priorities:
Technology Innovation - The Company is an established global leader in cockpit electronics and is positioned to provide solutions as the industry transitions to the next generation automotive cockpit experience. The cockpit is becoming fully digital, connected, automated, learning and voice enabled. Visteon's broad portfolio of cockpit electronics technology, the industry's first wireless battery management system, and the development of safety technology integrated into its domain controllers positions Visteon to support these macro trends in the automotive industry.
Long-Term Growth - The Company has continued to win business at a rate that exceeds current sales levels by demonstrating product quality, technical and development capability, new product innovation, reliability, timeliness, product design, manufacturing capability, and flexibility, as well as overall customer service.
Enhance Shareholder Returns While Maintaining a Strong Balance Sheet - The Company has continued to maintain a strong balance sheet to withstand industry volatility while providing a foundation for future growth and shareholder returns. In March 2023, the Company announced a $300 million share repurchase program maturing at the end of 2026. The Company repurchased $106 million of Company common stock during 2023 as part of this program.

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Financial Results

The pie charts below highlight the sales breakdown for Visteon for the year ended December 31, 2023.

https://cdn.kscope.io/d83d73455cb6c3397c07af97d5fc5dc8-2023.jpg

*Regional sales are based on the geographic region where sale originates and not where customer is located (excludes inter-regional eliminations).
Global Automotive Market Conditions and Production Levels

For the last few years, the industry has been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide semiconductor and other supply related shortages, a UAW strike, and increased geopolitical challenges. Industry vehicle volumes increased in 2022 and again in 2023 as the worldwide semiconductor and other supply related shortages have eased. However, industry production volumes of approximately 90 million units in 2023 remained below recent industry production levels that peaked in 2017 and risks related to vehicle affordability, economic uncertainty, potential geopolitical challenges, and customer market share changes create ongoing uncertainties. The magnitude of the impact on the financial statements, results of operations, and cash flows will depend on the evolution of the semiconductor supply, plant production schedules, supply chain impacts, and global economic impacts.

Company Highlights

Visteon continued to focus on execution throughout 2023, building a foundation of sustainable growth, margin expansion, and cash flow generation. Visteon reported sales of $3,954 million, a year-over-year increase of 5%, which represents continued out-performance compared to customer production. When excluding the impact of pricing from supply chain recoveries, Visteon’s base sales grew 12% from the prior year. Adjusted EBITDA* was $434 million, or 11% of sales as a result of operational leverage from higher volumes as well as commercial and cost discipline. Visteon continued to build the foundation for sustainable growth launching 129 new products during 2023. Visteon's next-generation products continue to be featured on its customer's key vehicles and platforms. Additionally, Visteon was awarded $7.2 billion in new business wins with strong representation in all product categories. Wins included cluster wins of approximately $1.6 billion, driven primarily by digital clusters, multiple SmartCore™ wins with lifetime revenue in excess of $1.3 billion, multiple large multi-display wins bringing total displays wins in excess of $0.8 billion for the year, momentum in connected services with the Company's first App Store win, first power electronics win for an integrated battery junction box, and incremental battery management system wins that extend the scope of previous customer wins.

To address the near-term challenges created from the worldwide semiconductor and supply chain shortages, Visteon continued the proactive initiatives aimed at increasing product availability for its customers while minimizing the impact of incremental costs to the business. Visteon continued to work with its customers to pass along the elevated costs caused by semiconductor shortages.









* Adjusted EBITDA is a Non-GAAP financial measure, as defined below.
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Results of Operations

Year ended December 31, 2023 Compared to Year ended December 31, 2022

The Company's consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)20232022Change
Net sales$3,954 $3,756 $198 
Cost of sales(3,467)(3,388)(79)
Gross margin487 368 119 
Selling, general and administrative expenses(207)(188)(19)
Restructuring and impairment(5)(14)
Interest expense, net(7)(10)
Equity in net (loss) income of non-consolidated affiliates(10)(1)(9)
Other income, net(1)20 (21)
Income (loss) before income taxes257 175 82 
Benefit from (provision for) income taxes
248 (45)293 
Net income (loss)505 130 375 
Less: Net (income) loss attributable to non-controlling interests(19)(6)(13)
Net income (loss) attributable to Visteon Corporation$486 $124 $362 
Adjusted EBITDA$434 $348 $86 
2023 includes a non-cash tax benefit of $313 million related to a reduction in the valuation allowance against the U.S. deferred tax assets.

Net Sales and Cost of Sales
(In millions)Net SalesCost of SalesGross Margin
December 31, 2022$3,756 $(3,388)$368 
Volume, mix, and net new business
500 (386)114 
Customer pricing, net
(256)— (256)
Currency
(44)19 (25)
Engineering costs, net— (14)(14)
Cost performance, design changes, and other(2)302 300 
December 31, 2023$3,954 $(3,467)$487 

Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2023 totaled $3,954 million, which represents an increase of $198 million compared with 2022. Volumes and net new business increased net sales by $500 million due to increases in customer production and continued market outperformance as a result of recent product launches. Customer pricing decreased net sales by $256 million primarily as a result of lower customer recoveries due to improving supply chain dynamics related to the worldwide semiconductor supply shortage. Unfavorable currency decreased net sales by $44 million, primarily attributable to the Chinese renminbi, Japanese yen, and Indian rupee, partially offset by the euro. Other cost performance, primarily related to design changes, decreased sales by $2 million.

Cost of sales increased $79 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, when compared with 2022. Volume, mix and net new business increased cost of sales by $386 million. Foreign currency decreased cost of sales by $19 million, primarily attributable to the Chinese renminbi and India rupee, partially offset by the Mexican peso. Net engineering costs, excluding currency, increased cost of sales by $14 million. Favorable cost performance, design changes and other decreased cost of sales by $302 million primarily due to improved supply chain dynamics related to the worldwide semiconductor supply shortage as well as manufacturing efficiencies.
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A summary of net engineering costs is shown below:
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)20232022
Gross engineering costs$(330)$(341)
Engineering recoveries120 145 
Engineering costs, net$(210)$(196)

Gross engineering costs relate to forward model program development and advanced engineering activities and exclude contractually reimbursable engineering costs. Net engineering costs of $210 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, including the impacts of currency, were $14 million higher than the same period of 2022. This increase is primarily related to lower recoveries, higher personnel cost, and inflation; partially offset by the timing of project expense.
Selling, General, and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general, and administrative expenses were $207 million, or 5.2% of net sales, and $188 million, or 5.0% of net sales, during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The increase is primarily due to increased personnel costs and reserves for bad debt.
Restructuring and Impairment
The Company recorded $5 million and $9 million of net restructuring expense for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, primarily related to employee severance.

In 2022, due to the geopolitical situation in Eastern Europe the Company elected to close the Russian facility resulting in a non-cash impairment charge of $5 million to fully impair property and equipment and reduce inventory to its net realizable value.

Interest Expense, Net

Net interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2023, was $7 million, representing a decrease of $3 million as compared to 2022. Interest expense for these periods is primarily related to the Company's term debt facility partially offset by cash balances invested at higher interest rates.
Equity in Net Income of Non-Consolidated Affiliates
Equity in net income of non-consolidated affiliates was a loss of $10 million and $1 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease is primarily due to various operational and non-operational charges incurred at an affiliate.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net consists of the following:
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)20232022
Pension financing benefits, net$11 $20 
Gain on sale of investment— 
Foreign currency translation charge— (3)
Township settlement(12)— 
$(1)$20 






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Income Taxes

The Company's benefit from income taxes was $248 million for year ended December 31, 2023, an increased benefit of $293 million when compared with income tax expense in 2022. During the fourth quarter of 2023, the Company released $313 million of its deferred tax valuation allowance related to its U.S. federal and certain state deferred tax assets. Excluding this item, the $20 million year-over-year increase in income tax expense is primarily attributable to the overall increase in pre-tax income, including changes in the mix of earnings and differing tax rates between jurisdictions as well as withholding taxes.

Adjusted EBITDA

The Company defines Adjusted EBITDA as net income attributable to the Company adjusted to eliminate the impact of depreciation and amortization, non-cash stock-based compensation expense, provision for income taxes, net interest expense, net income attributable to non-controlling interests, restructuring and impairment expense, equity in net income of non-consolidated affiliates, and other gains and losses not reflective of the Company's ongoing operations.

Adjusted EBITDA is presented as a supplemental measure of the Company's financial performance that management believes is useful to investors because the excluded items may vary significantly in timing or amounts and/or may obscure trends useful in evaluating and comparing the Company's operating activities across reporting periods. Not all companies use identical calculations and, accordingly, the Company's presentation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies. Adjusted EBITDA is not a recognized term under U.S. GAAP and does not purport to be a substitute for net income as an indicator of operating performance or cash flows from operating activities as a measure of liquidity. Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool and is not intended to be a measure of cash flow available for management's discretionary use, as it does not consider certain cash requirements such as interest payments, tax payments, and debt service requirements. The Company uses Adjusted EBITDA as a factor in incentive compensation decisions and to evaluate the effectiveness of the Company's business strategies. In addition, the Company's credit agreements use measures similar to Adjusted EBITDA to measure compliance with certain covenants.
The reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income attributable to Visteon for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 is as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)20232022Change
Net income (loss) attributable to Visteon Corporation$486 $124 $362 
  Depreciation and amortization104 108 (4)
  Restructuring and impairment14 (9)
  (Benefit from) provision for income tax
(248)45 (293)
  Non-cash, stock-based compensation expense34 26 
  Interest expense, net10 (3)
  Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests19 13 
  Equity in net loss (income) of non-consolidated affiliates10 
  Other, net17 14 
Adjusted EBITDA$434 $348 $86 
2023 includes a non-cash tax benefit of $313 million related to a reduction in the valuation allowance against the U.S. deferred tax assets.

Adjusted EBITDA was $434 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, representing an increase of $86 million when compared with Adjusted EBITDA of $348 million for 2022. Favorable volumes and mix increased Adjusted EBITDA by $114 million. Foreign currency decreased Adjusted EBITDA by $24 million, primarily attributable to the Japanese yen and Mexican peso. Net engineering costs, excluding currency, decreased Adjusted EBITDA by $12 million. Customer pricing decreased Adjusted EBITDA by $256 million primarily as a result of lower semiconductor open market purchases and the associated customer recoveries due to improving supply chain dynamics related to the worldwide semiconductor supply shortage. Other cost performance increased Adjusted EBITDA by $261 million primarily related to design changes and improved supply chain dynamics related to the worldwide semiconductor supply shortage as well as manufacturing efficiencies.

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Liquidity
Overview
The Company's primary sources of liquidity are cash flows from operations, existing cash balances, and borrowings under available credit facilities. The Company's intra-year needs are normally impacted by seasonal effects in the industry, such as mid-year shutdowns, the ramp-up of new model production, and year-end shutdowns at key customers.

A substantial portion of the Company's cash flows from operations are generated by operations located outside of the United States. Accordingly, the Company utilizes a combination of cash repatriation strategies, including dividends and distributions, royalties, and other intercompany arrangements to provide the funds necessary to meet obligations globally. The Company’s ability to access funds from its subsidiaries is subject to, among other things, customary regulatory and statutory requirements and contractual arrangements including joint venture agreements and local credit facilities. Moreover, repatriation efforts may be modified by the Company according to prevailing circumstances.
Access to additional capital through the debt or equity markets is influenced by the Company's credit ratings. As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s corporate credit rating is BB- by Standard & Poor’s. See Note 10, "Debt" in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for a comprehensive discussion of the Company's debt facilities. Incremental funding requirements of the Company's consolidated foreign entities are primarily accommodated by intercompany cash pooling structures. Affiliate working capital lines had availability of $151 million and the Company had $400 million of available credit under the revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2023.

Cash Balances
As of December 31, 2023, the Company had total cash and equivalents of $518 million, including $3 million of restricted cash. Cash balances totaling $383 million were located in jurisdictions outside of the United States, of which approximately $85 million is considered permanently reinvested for funding ongoing operations outside of the U.S. If such permanently reinvested funds were repatriated to the U.S., no U.S. federal taxes would be imposed on the distribution of such foreign earnings due to U.S. tax reform enacted in December 2017. However, the Company would be required to accrue additional tax expense primarily related to foreign withholding taxes.

Other Items Affecting Liquidity
During the year ended December 31, 2023, cash contributions to the Company's non-U.S. employee retirement plans were approximately $7 million. Additionally, the Company expects to make contributions to its US and non-US defined benefit pension plans of $9 and $7 million, respectively, during 2024.

During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company paid $8 million related to restructuring activities. Additional discussion regarding the Company's restructuring activities is provided in Note 3, "Restructuring and Impairments" in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

The Company has committed to make investments totaling $15 million in two entities principally focused on the automotive sector pursuant to limited partnership agreements. As of December 31, 2023, the Company has contributed $12 million toward the aggregate investment commitments. As a limited partner in each entity, the Company will periodically make capital contributions toward this total commitment amount.

On March 2, 2023 the Company's board of directors authorized a share repurchase program of $300 million of common stock through December 31, 2026. Under this program, the Company will repurchase shares at the prevailing market prices pursuant to specified share price and daily volume limits. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company has purchased 783,290 shares at an average price of $135.22 related to this program.

Purchase Obligations

As of December 31, 2023, the Company has contractual purchase obligations of approximately $22 million through 2028.

Leases

The Company has operating leases primarily for corporate offices, technical and engineering centers, vehicles, and certain equipment with future lease obligations ranging from 2024 to 2033. Additional discussion regarding the Company's leasing
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activities is provided in Note 8, "Leases" in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Taxes

The Company may be required to make significant cash outlays related to its unrecognized tax benefits, including interest and penalties. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had unrecognized tax benefits, including interest and penalties, that would be expected to result in a cash outlay of $17 million. Given the number of years, jurisdictions and positions subject to examination, the Company is unable to estimate the period of cash settlement, if any, with the respective taxing authorities. For further information related to the Company’s unrecognized tax benefits, see Note 13, “Income Taxes,” to the consolidated financial statements included in this Report.

Cash Flows

Operating Activities

The Company generated $267 million of cash from operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $167 million during 2022 representing a $100 million increase.

The increase in cash from operations in 2023 when compared to the prior period is primarily attributable to higher Adjusted EBITDA of $86 million and improved working capital usage of $50 million, primarily related to customer collections and improved inventory management, offset by decreased payables. The increases are partially offset by an increase of $39 million of cash paid for taxes.

Investing Activities

Net cash used by investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2023 totaled $123 million, as compared to cash used of $68 million in 2022, representing increased usage of $55 million. This increase in cash used by investing activities is primarily due to increased capital expenditures of $44 million.

Financing Activities
Net cash used by financing activities during the year ended December 31, 2023 totaled $156 million, as compared to a use of $9 million for 2022, representing increased usage of $147 million. This increase is primarily attributable to repurchases of common stock of $106 million and dividends paid to non-controlling interest of $29 million during the year ended December 31, 2023. The Company also repaid $13 million of principal on the term debt facility.

Debt and Capital Structure
See "Liquidity" above and also see Note 10, "Debt" and Note 14, "Stockholders' Equity and Non-controlling Interests" to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further information.

Fair Value Measurements
See Note 16, "Fair Value Measurements" to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The Company’s significant accounting policies have been disclosed in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes under Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Certain policies relate to estimates that involve matters that are highly uncertain at the time the accounting estimate is made and different estimates or changes to an estimate could have a material impact on the reported financial position, changes in financial condition or results of operations. Such critical estimates are discussed below. For these, materially different amounts could be reported under varied conditions and assumptions. Other items in the Company's consolidated financial statements require estimation, however, in the Company's opinion, they are not as critical as those discussed below.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets

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The Company monitors long-lived assets for impairment indicators on an ongoing basis. If an impairment indicator exists, the Company will test the long-lived asset group for recoverability by comparing the undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the long-lived assets compared to the related net book values. If the net book value of the asset group exceeds the undiscounted cash flows, the asset group is written down to its fair value and an impairment loss recognized. Fair value is determined using appraisals, management estimates or discounted cash flow calculations.

In 2022, due to the geopolitical situation in Eastern Europe the Company elected to close the Russian facility resulting in a non-cash impairment charge of $5 million to fully impair property and equipment and reduce inventory to its net realizable value. Additionally, as a result of the closure, during the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company recorded a charge of approximately $3 million related to foreign currency translation amounts recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss.

During the fourth quarter of 2021, the Company recorded an impairment of certain long-lived assets in Brazil due to rising costs and deteriorating business conditions. As a result, the Company recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $9 million to write-down property and equipment to its fair value as of December 31, 2021.

See Note 3, "Restructuring and Impairments” in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is measured based on the transaction price and the quantity of parts specified in a contract with a customer. Discrete price adjustments may occur during the vehicle production period in order for the Company to remain competitive with market prices or based on changes in product specifications. Some of these price adjustments are non-routine in nature and require estimation. In the event the Company concludes that a portion of the revenue for a given part may vary from the purchase order, the Company records consideration at the most likely amount to which the Company expects to be entitled based on historical experience and input from customer negotiations. See Note 1, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.

Product Warranty and Recall
The Company accrues for warranty obligations for products sold based on management estimates, with support from the Company’s sales, engineering, quality, and legal functions, of the amount that eventually will be required to settle such obligations. This accrual is based on several factors including contractual arrangements, past experience, current claims, production changes, industry developments, and various other considerations. The Company accrues for product recall claims related to potential financial participation in customer actions to provide remedies as a result of actual or threatened regulatory or court actions or the Company’s determination of the potential for such actions. The Company's accrual for recall claims is based on specific facts and circumstances underlying individual claims with support from the Company’s engineering, quality, and legal functions. Amounts accrued are based upon management’s best estimate of the amount that will ultimately be required to settle such claims. See Note 18, "Commitments and Contingencies" in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Restructuring
The Company accrues costs in connection with its restructuring of the engineering, administration, and manufacturing organizations. These accruals include estimates primarily related to employee headcount, local statutory benefits, and other employee termination costs. Actual costs may vary from these estimates. These accruals are reviewed on a quarterly basis and changes to restructuring actions are recognized when identified. See Note 3, “Restructuring and Impairments” in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Pension Plans
Certain Company employees participate in defined benefit pension plans or retirement/termination indemnity plans. The Company has approximately $142 million in unfunded net pension liabilities as of December 31, 2023, of which approximately $113 million and $29 million are attributable to U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans, respectively. The determination of the Company’s obligations and expense for its pension plans is dependent on assumptions set by the Company used by actuaries in calculating such amounts. Assumptions, including the discount rate, expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, and rate of increase in compensation, are described in Note 11, “Employee Benefit Plans” to the Company’s consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K, which are incorporated herein by reference.
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Actual results that differ from assumptions used are accumulated and amortized over future periods and, accordingly, generally affect recognized expense in future periods. Therefore, assumptions used to calculate benefit obligations as of the annual measurement date directly impact the expense to be recognized in future periods. The primary assumptions affecting the Company’s accounting for employee benefits, as of December 31, 2023, are as follows:
Expected long-term rate of return on plan assets
The expected long-term rate of return is used to calculate net periodic pension cost. The required use of the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets may result in recognized returns that are greater or less than the actual returns on those plan assets in any given year. Over time the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets is designed to approximate actual returns. The expected long-term rate of return for pension assets has been estimated based on various inputs, including historical returns for the different asset classes held by the Company’s trusts and its asset allocation, as well as inputs from internal and external sources regarding expected capital market returns, inflation, and other variables.
U.S. PlansNon-U.S. Plans
2023202220232022
Expected Rate of Return
6.87%6.23%2.00% - 9.45%2.00% - 8.90%
Long-Term Rates of Return
7.23%6.90%2.00% - 9.60%2.00% - 9.45%
Actual Rates of Return3.22%(17.10)%4.78%(31.10)%
The Company has set the long-term rates of return assumptions for its 2024 pension expense which range from 2.00% to 9.60% outside the U.S. and 7.23% in the U.S.
Discount rate
The Company uses the spot rate method to estimate the service and interest components of net periodic benefit cost for pension benefits for its U.S. and certain non-U.S. plans. The Company has elected to utilize an approach that discounts individual expected cash flows underlying interest and service costs using the applicable spot rates derived from the yield curve used to determine the benefit obligation to the relevant projected cash flows. The discount rate assumption is based on market rates for a hypothetical portfolio of high-quality corporate bonds rated Aa or better with maturities closely matched to the timing of projected benefit payments for each plan at its annual measurement date.
U.S. PlansNon-U.S. Plans
2023202220232022
Weighted Average Discount Rates5.40%2.48%5.33%2.23%
Discount Rates5.40%2.48%1.20% - 11.50%0.55% to 9.55%
While the Company believes that these assumptions are appropriate, significant differences in actual experience or significant changes in these assumptions may materially affect the Company’s pension benefit obligations and its future expense. The following table illustrates the sensitivity to a change in certain assumptions for Company sponsored U.S. and non-U.S. pension plans on its 2023 funded status and 2024 pretax pension expense.
Impact on U.S. 2024 Pretax Pension ExpenseImpact on
U.S. Plan 2023
Funded Status
Impact on Non-U.S. 2024 Pretax Pension ExpenseImpact on
Non-U.S. Plan 2023
 Funded Status
25 basis point decrease in discount rate (a)(b)
Less than -$1 million-$17 millionLess than -$1 million-$7 million
25 basis point increase in discount rate (a)(b)
Less than +$1 million+$16 millionLess than +$1 million+$6 million
25 basis point decrease in expected return on assets (a)
+$1.6 millionLess than +$1 million
25 basis point increase in expected return on assets (a)
-$1.6 million
Less than -$1 million
(a) Assumes all other assumptions are held constant.
(b) Excludes impact of assets used to hedge discount rate volatility.

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Income Taxes
The Company is subject to income taxes in the U.S. and numerous non-U.S. jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining the Company’s worldwide provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and valuation allowances recorded against the Company’s net deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. In the event the Company's operating performance improves or deteriorates in a filing jurisdiction or entity, future assessments could conclude a smaller or larger valuation allowance will be needed. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may be materially different from the current estimate.

In the ordinary course of the Company’s business, there are many transactions and calculations where the final tax determination is uncertain. The Company is regularly audited by tax authorities. Where appropriate, the Company accrues for contingencies related to income tax risks and non-income tax risks. See Note 13, "Income Taxes" in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company uses fair value measurements in the preparation of its financial statements, utilizing various inputs including those that can be readily observable, indirectly observable or are unobservable. The Company utilizes market-based data and valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs. Additionally, the Company applies assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability, including assumptions about risk. See Note 16, "Fair Value Measurements" and Note 6, "Property and Equipment" in the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” to the Company's consolidated financial statements under Item 8 of this Form 10-K for a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements.
Forward-Looking Statements
Certain statements contained or incorporated in this Annual Report on Form 10-K which are not statements of historical fact constitute “Forward-Looking Statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the “Reform Act”). Forward-looking statements give current expectations or forecasts of future events. Words such as “anticipate”, “expect”, “intend”, “plan”, “believe”, “seek”, “estimate” and other words and terms of similar meaning in connection with discussions of future operating or financial performance signify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect the Company’s current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and estimates, which are subject to risks and uncertainties including those discussed in Item 1A under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Accordingly, undue reliance should not be placed on these forward-looking statements. Also, these forward-looking statements represent the Company’s estimates and assumptions only as of the date of this Form 10-K. The Company does not intend to update any of these forward-looking statements to reflect circumstances or events that occur after the statement is made and qualifies all of its forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
You should understand that various factors, in addition to those discussed elsewhere in this document, could affect the Company’s future results and could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in such forward-looking statements, including:
Significant or prolonged shortage of critical components from Visteon’s suppliers including, but not limited to semiconductors and those components from suppliers who are sole or primary sources.
Continued and future impacts related to the conflict between Russia and the Ukraine including supply chain disruptions, reduction in customer demand, and the imposition of sanctions on Russia.
Failure of the Company’s joint venture partners to comply with contractual obligations or to exert undue influence in China.
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Significant changes in the competitive environment in the major markets where Visteon procures materials, components, or supplies or where its products are manufactured, distributed, or sold.
Visteon’s ability to satisfy its future capital and liquidity requirements; Visteon’s ability to access the credit and capital markets at the times and in the amounts needed and on terms acceptable to Visteon; Visteon’s ability to comply with covenants applicable to it; and the continuation of acceptable customer and supplier payment terms.
Visteon's ability to avoid or continue to operate during a strike, or partial work stoppage or slow down at any of Visteon's principal customers
Visteon’s ability to access funds generated by its foreign subsidiaries and joint ventures on a timely and cost-effective basis.
Changes in the operations (including products, product planning, and part sourcing), financial condition, results of operations, or market share of Visteon’s customers.
Changes in vehicle production volume of Visteon’s customers in the markets where it operates.
Increases in commodity costs and the Company's ability to offset or recover these costs or disruptions in the supply of commodities, including resins, copper, fuel, and natural gas.
Visteon’s ability to generate cost savings to offset or exceed agreed-upon price reductions or price reductions to win additional business and, in general, improve its operating performance; to achieve the benefits of its restructuring actions; and to recover engineering and tooling costs and capital investments.
Visteon’s ability to compete favorably with automotive parts suppliers with lower cost structures and greater ability to rationalize operations; and to exit non-performing businesses on satisfactory terms, particularly due to limited flexibility under existing labor agreements.
Restrictions in labor contracts with unions that restrict Visteon’s ability to close plants, divest unprofitable, noncompetitive businesses, change local work rules and practices at a number of facilities, and implement cost-saving measures.
The costs and timing of facility closures or dispositions, business or product realignments, or similar restructuring actions, including potential asset impairment or other charges related to the implementation of these actions or other adverse industry conditions and contingent liabilities.
Legal and administrative proceedings, investigations, and claims, including shareholder class actions, inquiries by regulatory agencies, product liability, warranty, employee-related, environmental and safety claims, and any recalls of products manufactured or sold by Visteon.
Changes in economic conditions, currency exchange rates, interest rates, changes in foreign laws, regulations or trade policies, or political stability in foreign countries where Visteon procures materials, components, or supplies or where its products are manufactured, distributed, or sold.
Shortages of materials or interruptions in transportation systems, labor strikes, work stoppages, or other interruptions to or difficulties in the employment of labor in the major markets where Visteon purchases materials, components, or supplies to manufacture its products or where its products are manufactured, distributed, or sold.
Visteon’s ability to satisfy its pension and other postretirement employee benefit obligations, and to retire outstanding debt and satisfy other contractual commitments, all at the levels and times planned by management.
Changes in laws, regulations, policies or other activities of governments, agencies and similar organizations, domestic and foreign, that may tax or otherwise increase the cost of, or otherwise affect, the manufacture, licensing, distribution, sale, ownership, or use of Visteon’s products or assets.
Possible terrorist attacks or acts of war, which could exacerbate other risks such as slowed vehicle production, interruptions in the transportation system, changes in fuel prices, and disruptions of supply.
The cyclical and seasonal nature of the automotive industry.
Visteon’s ability to comply with environmental, safety, and other regulations applicable to it and any increase in the requirements, responsibilities, and associated expenses and expenditures of these regulations.
Disruptions in information technology systems including, but not limited to, system failure, cyber-attack, malicious computer software (malware including ransomware), unauthorized physical or electronic access, or other natural or man-made incidents or disasters.
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Visteon’s ability to protect its intellectual property rights and to respond to changes in technology and technological risks and to claims by others that Visteon infringes their intellectual property rights.
Visteon’s ability to quickly and adequately remediate control deficiencies in its internal control over financial reporting.
Other factors, risks and uncertainties detailed from time to time in Visteon’s Securities and Exchange Commission filings.

Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

The primary market risks to which the Company is exposed include changes in currency exchange rates, interest rates and certain commodity prices. The Company manages these risks through operating actions including fixed price contracts with suppliers and cost sourcing arrangements with customers and through various derivative instruments. The Company's use of derivative instruments is strictly intended for hedging purposes to mitigate market risks pursuant to written risk management policies. Accordingly, derivative instruments are not used for speculative or trading purposes. The Company's use of derivative instruments creates exposure to credit loss in the event of non-performance by the counter-party to the derivative financial instruments. The Company limits this exposure by entering into agreements directly with a variety of major financial institutions with high credit standards and that are expected to fully satisfy their obligations under the contracts. Additionally, the Company's ability to utilize derivatives to manage market risk is dependent on credit conditions, market conditions, and prevailing economic environment.
Foreign Currency Risk

The Company’s net cash inflows and outflows exposed to the risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates arise from the sale of products in countries other than the manufacturing source, foreign currency denominated customer receipts, supplier payments, debt and other payables, subsidiary dividends, investments in subsidiaries, and anticipated foreign currency denominated transaction proceeds. The Company may utilize derivative financial instruments to manage foreign currency exchange rate risks. Forward and option contracts may be utilized to reduce the impact to the Company's cash flow from adverse movements in exchange rates. Foreign currency exposures are reviewed periodically, and any natural offsets are considered prior to entering into a derivative financial instrument.

In addition to the transactional exposure described above, the Company's operating results are impacted by the translation of its foreign operating income into U.S. dollars. The Company does not enter into foreign exchange contracts to mitigate this exposure.

The hypothetical pretax gain or loss in fair value from a 10% favorable or adverse change in quoted currency exchange rates would be approximately $21 million for foreign currency derivative financial instruments as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. These estimated changes assume a parallel shift in all currency exchange rates and include the gain or loss on financial instruments used to hedge investments in subsidiaries. Because exchange rates typically do not all move in the same direction, the estimate may overstate the impact of changing exchange rates on the net fair value of the Company's financial derivatives. It is also important to note that gains and losses indicated in the sensitivity analysis would generally be offset by gains and losses on the underlying exposures being hedged.

Interest Rate Risk

See Note 17, "Financial Instruments" to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information.

Commodity Risk

The Company's exposures to market risk from changes in the price of production material are managed primarily through negotiations with suppliers and customers, although there can be no assurance that the Company will recover all such costs. The Company continues to evaluate derivatives available in the marketplace and may decide to utilize derivatives in the future to manage select commodity risks if an acceptable hedging instrument is identified for the Company's exposure level at that time, as well as the effectiveness of the financial hedge among other factors.
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Item 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

Visteon Corporation and Subsidiaries

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
Page No.
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the stockholders and the Board of Directors of Visteon Corporation

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Visteon Corporation and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), cash flows, and changes in equity, for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and the schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also, in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.
Basis for Opinions

The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures to respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

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Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Revenue Recognition - Non-routine price adjustments - Refer to Note 1 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company’s revenue is measured based on the transaction price and the quantity of parts specified in a contract with a customer. Discrete price adjustments may occur during the vehicle production period in order for the Company to remain competitive with market prices or based on changes in product specifications. Some of these price adjustments are non-routine in nature and require estimation. In the event the Company concludes that a portion of the revenue for a given part may vary from the purchase order, the Company records consideration at the most likely amount to which the Company expects to be entitled based on historical experience and input from customer negotiations.

Auditing non-routine price adjustments requires auditor judgment to evaluate the evidence available from customer negotiations.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to non-routine price adjustments including the following, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over non-routine price adjustments.
We tested a sample of non-routine price adjustments recorded and compared such adjustments to underlying supporting documentation.
We inspected pricing-related communications between the Company and its customers.
We evaluated management’s process for estimating non-routine price adjustments by comparing current year adjustments to accruals established in prior periods.
We made inquiries of Company executives responsible for customer relationships regarding customer negotiations and non-routine price adjustments.

Income Taxes - U.S. net deferred tax asset valuation allowance - Refer to Note 1 and Note 13 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that such assets will not be realized. In determining the need for a valuation allowance, all available positive and negative evidence, including historical and projected financial performance, is considered along with any other pertinent information.

In the fourth quarter of 2023, the Company released $313 million of valuation allowance against its U.S. net deferred tax assets (“valuation allowance release”) resulting in a non-cash benefit to income tax expense. In determining the amount of the U.S. valuation allowance to release, the Company applied the incremental economic benefit approach.

Auditing the valuation allowance release required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our income tax specialists, due to the complexity in applying the incremental economic benefit approach.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to the Company’s valuation allowance release included the following, among others:

We tested the effectiveness of controls over management’s application of the incremental economic benefit approach to determine the amount of the valuation allowance release.
We tested the application of the incremental economic benefit approach including the underlying data and assumptions used by management.
36


With the assistance of our income tax specialists, we developed an independent expectation of the amount of the valuation allowance release and compared it to management’s calculation of the valuation allowance release.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Detroit, Michigan

February 20, 2024

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2022.
37


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Visteon Corporation

Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Visteon Corporation and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), cash flows and changes in equity for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes and financial statement schedule included in Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated February 17, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.


38


Revenue Recognition
Description of the Matter
As discussed in Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, the Company’s sales contracts with its customers may provide for discrete price adjustments during the vehicle production period in order for the Company to remain competitive with market prices or based on changes in production specifications. Some of these price adjustments are non-routine in nature and require estimation. In the event the Company concludes that a portion of the revenue for a given part may vary from the purchase order, the Company records consideration at the most likely amount to which the Company expects to be entitled based on historical experience and input from customer negotiations.
Auditing the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for certain of its products which are subject to non-routine price adjustments is highly judgmental due to changes in production specifications and commercial negotiations with customers throughout the life of the production periods.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We identified and tested controls relating to the identification and evaluation of non-routine pricing adjustments including management’s evaluation of the commercial facts and circumstances to support the most likely consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled.
Our audit procedures included, among others, inspecting communications between the Company and its customers related to the pricing arrangements, making inquiries of the sales representatives who are responsible for negotiations with customers, testing any subsequent adjustments for appropriate amount and timing, obtaining written representations from management regarding customer agreements, and performing retrospective reviews of management’s estimates to identify any contrary evidence.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets - Property and Equipment
Description of the Matter
As of December 31, 2021, the Company's property and equipment, net balance was $388 million. As discussed in Note 4, Restructuring and Impairments, during the fourth quarter of 2021, the Company recorded an impairment of certain long-lived assets in Brazil due to rising costs and deteriorating business conditions. The Company evaluated its property and equipment in Brazil for recoverability and concluded that certain assets were impaired. The Company recognized a $9 million impairment charge, which is the amount by which the carrying value exceeded the estimated fair value of these assets.
Auditing the Company’s impairment measurement involved a high degree of judgment as estimates underlying the determination of fair value of the long-lived assets were based on assumptions affected by current market and economic conditions. To determine the fair value of the long-lived asset group, the Company utlized a cost and market approach, measuring fair value on the standalone basis value premise.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We identified and tested controls relating to the determination of the asset group's fair value and measurement of the related impairment. We also tested controls over the Company's review of the significant assumptions and methodologies used in the calculation of fair value of the related assets.
Our audit procedures included, among others, evaluating the valuation methodology, significant assumptions and data used in the valuation, and testing the mathematical accuracy of the impairment charge. We also involved our valuation specialists to assist in evaluating the approach and key assumptions used to estimate the fair value.


/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We served as the Company's auditor from 2012 to 2022.
Detroit, Michigan
February 17, 2022







39


VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In millions, except per share amounts)

Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net sales
$3,954 $3,756 $2,773 
Cost of sales
(3,467)(3,388)(2,519)
Gross margin
487 368 254 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
(207)(188)(175)
Restructuring and impairment
(5)(14)(14)
Interest expense
(17)(14)(10)
Interest income
10 4 2 
Equity in net (loss) income of non-consolidated affiliates
(10)(1)6 
Other (loss) income, net
(1)20 18 
Income (loss) before income taxes
257 175 81 
Benefit from (provision for) income taxes
248 (45)(31)
Net income (loss)
505 130 50 
Less: Net (income) loss attributable to non-controlling interests
(19)(6)(9)
Net income (loss) attributable to Visteon Corporation
$486 $124 $41 
Basic earnings (loss) per share attributable to Visteon Corporation
$17.30 $4.41 $1.46 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share attributable to Visteon Corporation
$17.05 $4.35 $1.44 


See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
40


VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net income (loss)
$505 $130 $50 
   Foreign currency translation adjustments
15 (66)(31)
   Net investment hedge
(7)8 19 
   Benefit plans, net of tax (a)
(51)56 84 
   Unrealized hedging gains (losses), net of tax (a)
(1)13 6 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
(44)11 78 
Comprehensive income (loss)
461 141 128 
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interests
16 1 12 
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Visteon Corporation
$445 $140 $116 
(a) These amounts are net of income tax effects.

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
41


VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions)
December 31,
20232022
ASSETS
Cash and equivalents
$515 $520 
Restricted cash
3 3 
Accounts receivable, net
666 672 
Inventories, net
298 348 
Other current assets
134 167 
Total current assets
1,616 1,710 
Property and equipment, net
418 364 
Intangible assets, net
90 99 
Right-of-use assets
109 124 
Investments in non-consolidated affiliates
35 49 
Deferred tax assets
384 42 
Other non-current assets
75 62 
Total assets
$2,727 $2,450 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Short-term debt
$18 $13 
Accounts payable
551 657 
Accrued employee liabilities
99 90 
Current lease liability
30 29 
Other current liabilities
233 246 
Total current liabilities
931 1,035 
Long-term debt, net
318 336 
Employee benefits
160 115 
Non-current lease liability
79 99 
Deferred tax liabilities
31 27 
Other non-current liabilities
85 64 
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock (par value $0.01, 50 million shares authorized, none outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022)
  
Common stock (par value $0.01, 250 million shares authorized, 55 million shares issued, 27.7 and 28.2 million shares outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively)
1 1 
Additional paid-in capital
1,356 1,352 
Retained earnings
2,274 1,788 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(254)(213)
Treasury stock
(2,339)(2,253)
Total Visteon Corporation stockholders’ equity
1,038 675 
Non-controlling interests
85 99 
Total equity
1,123 774 
Total liabilities and equity
$2,727 $2,450 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
42


VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In millions)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Operating Activities
Net income
$505 $130 $50 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided from operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization
104 108 108 
Non-cash stock-based compensation
34 26 18 
Equity in net income of non-consolidated affiliates, net of dividends remitted
15 4 12 
Impairments
 5 9 
U.S. tax valuation allowance benefit
(313)  
Other non-cash items
(6)(1)14 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable
13 (156)(78)
Inventories
52 (105)(92)
Accounts payable
(130)146 28 
Other assets and other liabilities
(7)10 (11)
Net cash provided from operating activities
267 167 58 
Investing Activities
Capital expenditures, including intangibles
(125)(81)(70)
Contributions to equity method investments(1)(3)(5)
Net investment hedge transactions 12 4 
Other, net
3 4 8 
Net cash used by investing activities
(123)(68)(63)
Financing Activities
Borrowings on term debt facility 350  
Payments on term debt facility (350) 
Short-term debt, net
 (4)4 
Principal repayment of term debt facility
(13)  
Dividends paid to non-controlling interests
(29)(2)(35)
Repurchase of common stock
(106)  
Stock based compensation tax withholding payments
(16)  
Proceeds from the exercise of stock options
8   
Other
 (3)2 
Net cash used by financing activities
(156)(9)(29)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
7 (22)(11)
Net increase (decrease) in cash, equivalents, and restricted cash
(5)68 (45)
Cash, equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of the period
523 455 500 
Cash, equivalents, and restricted cash at end of the period
$518 $523 $455 
Supplemental Disclosures:
Cash paid for interest, net
$5 $12 $15 
Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds
$68 $29 $15 


See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
43


VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
(In millions)
Total Visteon Corporation Stockholders' Equity
Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Treasury
Stock
Total Visteon Corporation Stockholders' EquityNon-Controlling InterestsTotal Equity
December 31, 2020$1 $1,348 $1,623 $(304)$(2,281)$387 $123 $510 
Net income (loss)
— — 41 — — 41 9 50 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
— — — 75 — 75 3 78 
Stock-based compensation, net
— 1 — — 12 13 — 13 
Cash dividends
— — — — — — (35)(35)
December 31, 2021$1 $1,349 $1,664 $(229)$(2,269)$516 $100 $616 
Net income (loss)
— — 124 — — 124 6 130 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
— — — 16 — 16 (5)11 
Stock-based compensation, net
— 3 — — 16 19 — 19 
Cash dividends
— — — — — — (2)(2)
December 31, 2022$1 $1,352 $1,788 $(213)$(2,253)$675 $99 $774 
Net income (loss)
— — 486 — — 486 19 505 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
— — — (41)— (41)(3)(44)
Stock-based compensation, net
— 4 — — 21 25 — 25 
Share repurchase— — — — (107)(107)— (107)
Dividends to non-controlling interest
— — — — — — (30)(30)
December 31, 2023$1 $1,356 $2,274 $(254)$(2,339)$1,038