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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington D.C. 20549
________________
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
     QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2022
OR
     TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____________ to ____________
Commission file number 001-15827
VISTEON CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
State ofDelaware38-3519512
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
One Village Center Drive,Van Buren Township,Michigan48111
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800)-VISTEON
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, Par Value $.01 Per ShareVCThe NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ü No__
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ü No __
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer,” "smaller reporting company" and “emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  ü  Accelerated filer     Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ü
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes ü No
As of October 21, 2022, the registrant had outstanding 28,142,789 shares of common stock.
Exhibit index located on page number 38.
1




Visteon Corporation and Subsidiaries
Index
Page
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity (Unaudited)
2



Part I
Financial Information

Item 1.Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In millions except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2022202120222021
Net sales
$1,026 $631 $2,692 $1,987 
Cost of sales
(922)(584)(2,438)(1,832)
Gross margin
104 47 254 155 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
(47)(42)(134)(131)
Restructuring and impairment
(1)2 (12)2 
Interest expense
(3)(2)(10)(8)
Interest income
1  3 2 
Equity in net (loss) income of non-consolidated affiliates
(1)2 3 2 
Other income, net
5 4 15 13 
 Income (loss) before income taxes
58 11 119 35 
 Provision for income taxes
(9)(4)(24)(20)
Net income (loss)
49 7 95 15 
Less: Net (income) loss attributable to non-controlling interests
(5)(2)(5)(5)
Net income (loss) attributable to Visteon Corporation
$44 $5 $90 $10 
Comprehensive income (loss)
$15 $1 $21 $10 
 Less: Comprehensive (income) loss attributable to non-controlling interests (1)4 (6)
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Visteon Corporation
$15 $ $25 $4 
Basic earnings (loss) per share attributable to Visteon Corporation
$1.57 $0.18 $3.20 $0.36 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share attributable to Visteon Corporation
$1.54 $0.18 $3.16 $0.35 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
3



VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions)
(Unaudited)
September 30,December 31,
20222021
ASSETS
 Cash and equivalents
$362 $452 
 Restricted cash
3 3 
Accounts receivable, net
733 549 
Inventories, net
341 262 
Other current assets
155 158 
Total current assets
1,594 1,424 
Property and equipment, net
336 388 
Intangible assets, net
101 118 
Right-of-use assets
120 139 
Investments in non-consolidated affiliates
51 54 
Other non-current assets
124 111 
Total assets
$2,326 $2,234 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Short-term debt
$9 $4 
Accounts payable
645 522 
Accrued employee liabilities
79 80 
Current lease liability
27 28 
Other current liabilities
220 218 
Total current liabilities
980 852 
Long-term debt, net
340 349 
Employee benefits
171 198 
Non-current lease liability
97 117 
Deferred tax liabilities
26 27 
Other non-current liabilities
63 75 
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock (par value 0.01, 50 million shares authorized, none outstanding as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021)
  
Common stock (par value $0.01, 250 million shares authorized, 55 million shares issued, 28.1 and 28.0 million shares outstanding as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively)
1 1 
Additional paid-in capital
1,351 1,349 
Retained earnings
1,754 1,664 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(294)(229)
Treasury stock
(2,257)(2,269)
Total Visteon Corporation stockholders’ equity
555 516 
Non-controlling interests
94 100 
Total equity
649 616 
Total liabilities and equity
$2,326 $2,234 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
4



VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In millions)
(Unaudited)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20222021
Operating Activities
Net income (loss)
$95 $15 
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided from (used by) operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization
79 82 
Non-cash stock-based compensation
19 13 
Equity in net loss (income) of non-consolidated affiliates, net of dividends remitted
— 14 
Impairments
4  
Other non-cash items
(2)4 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable
(244)50 
Inventories
(112)(82)
Accounts payable
173 (68)
Other assets and other liabilities
(10)(40)
Net cash (used by) provided from operating activities
2 (12)
Investing Activities
Capital expenditures, including intangibles
(54)(54)
Contributions to equity method investments(1)(3)
Settlement of derivative contracts9  
Loan repayments from non-consolidated affiliates 2 
Other2 5 
Net cash used by investing activities
(44)(50)
Financing Activities
Borrowings on term debt facility350  
Payments on term debt facility(350) 
Dividends to non-controlling interests (33)
Short-term debt, net(4)6 
Other(3)1 
Net cash (used by) provided from financing activities
(7)(26)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
(41)(11)
Net decrease in cash, equivalents, and restricted cash
(90)(99)
Cash, equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of the period
455 500 
Cash, equivalents, and restricted cash at end of the period
$365 $401 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
5



VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
(In millions)
(Unaudited)
Total Visteon Corporation Stockholders' Equity
Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Treasury
Stock
Total Visteon Corporation Stockholders' EquityNon-Controlling InterestsTotal Equity
December 31, 2021
$1 $1,349 $1,664 $(229)$(2,269)$516 $100 $616 
Net income (loss)— — 22 — — 22 1 23 
Other comprehensive income (loss)— — — 4 — 4  4 
Stock-based compensation, net— (10)— — 9 (1)— (1)
March 31, 2022
$1 $1,339 $1,686 $(225)$(2,260)$541 $101 $642 
Net income (loss)— — 24 — — 24 (1)23 
Other comprehensive income (loss)— — — (40)— (40)(4)(44)
Stock-based compensation, net— 6 — — 1 7 — 7 
Dividends to non-controlling interest— — — — — — (2)(2)
June 30, 2022$1 $1,345 $1,710 $(265)$(2,259)$532 $94 $626 
Net income (loss)— — 44 — — 44 5 49 
Other comprehensive income (loss)— — — (29)— (29)(5)(34)
Stock-based compensation, net— 6 — — 2 8 — 8 
September 30, 2022$1 $1,351 $1,754 $(294)$(2,257)$555 $94 $649 

Total Visteon Corporation Stockholders' Equity
Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Treasury
Stock
Total Visteon Corporation Stockholders' EquityNon-Controlling InterestsTotal Equity
December 31, 2020
$1 $1,348 $1,623 $(304)$(2,281)$387 $123 $510 
Net income (loss)
— — 16 — — 16 3 19 
Other comprehensive income (loss)
— — — (17)— (17)(1)(18)
Stock-based compensation, net— (11)— — 9 (2)— (2)
Dividends to non-controlling interest— — — — — — (3)(3)
March 31, 2021
$1 $1,337 $1,639 $(321)$(2,272)$384 $122 $506 
Net income (loss)— — (11)— — (11) (11)
Other comprehensive income (loss)— — — 16 — 16 3 19 
Stock-based compensation, net— 4 — — 1 5 — 5 
Cash dividend— — — — — — (1)(1)
Dividends to non-controlling interest— — — — — — (31)(31)
June 30, 2021$1 $1,341 $1,628 $(305)$(2,271)$394 $93 $487 
Net income (loss)— — 5 — — 5 2 7 
Other comprehensive income (loss)— — — (5)— (5)(1)(6)
Stock-based compensation, net— 3 — — 2 5 — 5 
September 30, 2021$1 $1,344 $1,633 $(310)$(2,269)$399 $94 $493 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.






6



VISTEON CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)

NOTE 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation - Interim Financial Statements

The condensed consolidated financial statements of Visteon Corporation and Subsidiaries (the "Company" or "Visteon") have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States ("U.S. GAAP"). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments, except as otherwise disclosed) that management believes are necessary for a fair presentation of the results of operations, financial position, stockholders' equity, and cash flows of the Company for the interim periods presented. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of full-year results.

Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect amounts reported herein. Considerable judgment is involved in making these determinations and the use of different estimates or assumptions could result in significantly different results. Management believes its assumptions and estimates are reasonable and appropriate. However, actual results could differ from those reported herein. Events and changes in circumstances arising after September 30, 2022, including those resulting from the impacts of COVID-19 and the subsequent semiconductor supply shortage, as further described in Note 14, "Commitments and Contingencies", will be reflected in management's estimates in future periods.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts: The Company establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts for accounts receivable based on the current expected credit loss impairment model (“CECL”). The Company applies a historical loss rate based on historic write-offs by region to aging categories. The historical loss rate is adjusted for current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future losses, as necessary. The Company may also record a specific reserve for individual accounts when the Company becomes aware of specific customer circumstances, such as in the case of a bankruptcy filing or deterioration in the customer's operating results or financial position. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $5 million and $4 million of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

Government Assistance - In November 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-10, "Government Assistance (Topic 832) - Disclosures by Business Entities about Government Assistance." to increase the transparency of government assistance including the disclosure of the types of assistance, an entity’s accounting for the assistance, and the effect of the assistance on an entity’s financial statements. The amendments in this update are effective for all entities within their scope for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021. The adoption of the guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.


7



NOTE 2. Non-Consolidated Affiliates

Investments in Affiliates

The Company's investments in non-consolidated equity method affiliates include the following:

September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
Yanfeng Visteon Investment Co., Ltd. ("YFVIC") (50%)
$30 $36 
Limited partnerships13 10 
Other
8 8 
Total investments in non-consolidated affiliates
$51 $54 

Variable Interest Entities
The Company evaluates whether joint ventures in which it has invested are Variable Interest Entities (“VIE”) at the start of each new venture and when a reconsideration event has occurred. The Company consolidates a VIE if it is determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE having both the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
The Company determined that YFVIC is a VIE. The Company holds a variable interest in YFVIC primarily related to its ownership interests and subordinated financial support. The Company and Yangfeng Automotive Trim Systems Co. Ltd. ("YF") each own 50% of YFVIC and neither entity has the power to control the operations of YFVIC; therefore, the Company is not the primary beneficiary of YFVIC and does not consolidate the joint venture.
The Company's investments in YFVIC consists of the following:
September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
Payables due to YFVIC
$41 $20 
Exposure to loss in YFVIC:
Investment in YFVIC
$30 $36 
Receivables due from YFVIC
48 48 
    Maximum exposure to loss in YFVIC
$78 $84 
The Company recorded a $9 million settlement charge related to a one-time contract dispute with a joint venture partner during the second quarter 2022. This charge is recorded within Cost of Sales.
Equity Investments
In 2018, the Company committed to make a $15 million investment in two funds managed by venture capital firms principally focused on the automotive sector pursuant to limited partnership agreements. As a limited partner in each fund, the Company will periodically make capital contributions toward this total commitment amount. As of September 30, 2022, the Company has contributed a total of approximately $10 million toward the aggregate investment commitments. These limited partnerships are classified as equity method investments.

NOTE 3. Restructuring and Impairments
Given the economically-sensitive and highly competitive nature of the automotive electronics industry, the Company continues to closely monitor current market factors and industry trends, including potential impacts related to COVID-19, taking action as necessary which may include restructuring actions. However, there can be no assurance that any such actions will be sufficient to fully offset the impact of adverse factors on the Company or its results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.



8






Current restructuring actions include the following:

During 2022, the Company approved and recorded $5 million of restructuring expense, primarily impacting Europe, in order to improve efficiencies and rationalize the Company's footprint, including the indefinite suspension of operations in Russia. As of September 30, 2022, $4 million remains accrued related to these actions.

During 2020, the Company approved various restructuring programs impacting engineering, administrative and manufacturing functions to improve efficiency and rationalize the Company’s footprint. During the first nine months of 2022 the Company recorded $2 million of costs related to these programs. As of September 30, 2022, $4 million remains accrued related to these programs.

During prior periods the Company approved various restructuring programs to improve efficiencies which do not relate to the programs described above. As of September 30, 2022, $5 million remains accrued related to these previously announced actions.

Restructuring Reserves

The Company’s restructuring reserves and related activity are summarized below.
(In millions)
December 31, 2021$18 
   Expense2 
   Change in estimate1 
   Payments(5)
March 31, 2022$16 
   Expense2 
   Change in estimate2 
   Payments(4)
   Foreign exchange(1)
June 30, 2022$15 
   Expense1 
   Payments(3)
September 30, 2022$13 

Impairments

During the nine months ended September 30, 2022, due to the current geopolitical situation in Eastern Europe the Company indefinitely suspended operations in Russia beginning in the second quarter 2022. As such, the Company recognized a non-cash impairment charge of $2 million to fully impair property and equipment as of September 30, 2022. The Company also recorded a $2 million charge to reduce certain inventory in Russia to its net realizable value based on the Company’s suspension of operations in Russia during the second quarter 2022.

NOTE 4. Inventories
Inventories, net consist of the following components:
September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
Raw materials
$294 $206 
Work-in-process
16 29 
Finished products
31 27 
$341 $262 

9



NOTE 5. Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Intangible assets, net are comprised of the following:
September 30, 2022December 31, 2021
(In millions)Estimated Weighted Average Useful Life (years)Gross IntangiblesAccumulated AmortizationNet IntangiblesGross IntangiblesAccumulated AmortizationNet Intangibles
Definite-Lived:
Developed technology10$40 $(39)$1 $41 $(39)$2 
Customer related1087 (74)13 96 (75)21 
Capitalized software development549 (13)36 48 (10)38 
Other3215 (9)6 15 (8)7 
Subtotal191 (135)56 200 (132)68 
Indefinite-Lived:
Goodwill45 — 45 50 — 50 
Total $236 $(135)$101 $250 $(132)$118 

Capitalized software development consists of software development costs intended for integration into customer products.


NOTE 6. Other Assets

Other current assets are comprised of the following components:
September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
 Receivables from non-consolidated affiliates
$51 $48 
 Recoverable taxes
48 40 
 Contractually reimbursable engineering costs
33 34 
 Prepaid assets and deposits
19 21 
Royalty agreements2 4 
China bank notes 3 
 Other
2 8 
$155 $158 

The Company receives bank notes from certain customers in China to settle trade accounts receivable. The collection of such bank notes are included in operating cash flows based on the substance of the underlying transactions which are operating in nature. The Company redeemed $101 million and $114 million of China bank notes during the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Remaining amounts outstanding at third-party institutions related to sold bank notes will mature by the end of the first quarter of 2023.

During 2022, the Company terminated derivative financial instruments and received approximately $9 million of proceeds upon settlement. See Note 13, "Fair Value Measurements and Financial Instruments" for further details.

10



Other non-current assets are comprised of the following components:
September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
Deferred tax assets$45 $47 
Contractually reimbursable engineering costs30 34 
Derivative financial instruments14  
Recoverable taxes8 9 
Pension assets5 7 
Royalty agreements 2 
 Other
22 12 
$124 $111 
Current and non-current contractually reimbursable engineering costs are related to pre-production design and development costs incurred pursuant to long-term supply arrangements that are contractually guaranteed for reimbursement by customers. The Company expects to receive cash reimbursement payments of $7 million during the remainder of 2022, $35 million in 2023, $17 million in 2024, $3 million in 2025, and $1 million in 2026 and beyond.

NOTE 7. Other Liabilities

Other current liabilities are summarized as follows:
September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
Deferred income
$48 $69 
Payables to non-consolidated affiliates
42 20 
Non-income taxes payable
34 26 
Product warranty and recall accruals
28 30 
Income taxes payable
13 8 
Royalty reserves
12 12 
Restructuring reserves
9 16 
Other
34 37 
$220 $218 

Other non-current liabilities are summarized as follows:
September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
Product warranty and recall accruals
$19 $20 
Deferred income
16 15 
Income tax reserves
8 8 
 Restructuring reserves4 2 
Royalty agreements
3 5 
Derivative financial instruments
 13 
Other
13 12 
$63 $75 

11



NOTE 8. Debt
The Company’s debt consists of the following:
September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
Short-Term Debt:
Current portion of long-term debt$9 $ 
Short-term borrowings 4 
$9 $4 
Long-Term Debt:
Term debt facility, net$340 $349 
As of December 31, 2021, the Company had an amended credit agreement ("Credit Agreement") which included a $350 million Term Facility maturing March 24, 2024 and a $400 million Revolving Credit Facility.
On July 19, 2022, the Company entered into a new amendment to the Credit Agreement to, among other things, extend the maturity dates of both facilities. The amended Revolving Credit Facility and Term Facility will mature on July 19, 2027. The amendment changed the method the Term Loan and Revolving Credit Facility accrue interest from a LIBOR-based rate to a Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") based rate.
In connection with amending both the Term Facility and Revolving Credit Facility, the Company recorded $1 million of interest expense. The Company also deferred $2 million of costs as a non-current asset and $1 million of costs net of Long-term debt. The deferred costs will be amortized over the term of the debt facilities.
Short-Term Debt

Terms of the amended credit facility require a quarterly principal payment equal to 1.25% of the original term debt balance. The first required payment is due during the second quarter 2023.

Short-term borrowings at December 31, 2021 are related to subsidiary borrowings.

As of September 30, 2022, the Company has no other short-term borrowings, including at the Company's subsidiaries. The Company's subsidiaries have access to $178 million of capacity under short-term credit facilities.

Long-Term Debt

The Company has no outstanding borrowings on the Revolving Credit Facility as of September 30, 2022.

Interest on the Term Facility and Revolving Credit Facility accrue interest at a rate equal to a SOFR-based rate plus an applicable margin of between 1.00% and 1.75%, as determined by the Company's total gross leverage ratio.

The Credit Agreement requires compliance with customary affirmative and negative covenants and contains customary events of default. The Revolving Credit Facility also requires that the Company maintain a total net leverage ratio no greater than 3.50:1.00. During any period when the Company’s corporate and family ratings meet investment grade ratings, certain of the negative covenants are suspended.

The Revolving Credit Facility also provides $75 million availability for the issuance of letters of credit and a maximum of $20 million for swing line borrowings. Any amount of the facility utilized for letters of credit or swing line loans outstanding will reduce the amount available under the existing Revolving Credit Facility. The Company may request increases in the limits under the Credit Agreement and may request the addition of one or more term loan facilities. Outstanding borrowings may be prepaid without penalty (other than borrowings made for the purpose of reducing the effective interest rate margin or weighted average yield of the loans). There are mandatory prepayments of principle in connection with: (i) excess cash flow sweeps above certain leverage thresholds, (ii) certain asset sales or other dispositions, (iii) certain refinancing of indebtedness and (iv) over-advances under the Revolving Credit Facility. There are no excess cash flow sweeps required at the Company’s current leverage level.

12



All obligations under the Credit Agreement and obligations with respect to certain cash management services and swap transaction agreements between the Company and its lenders are unconditionally guaranteed by certain of the Company’s subsidiaries. Under the terms of the Credit Agreement, any amounts outstanding are secured by a first-priority perfected lien on substantially all property of the Company and the subsidiaries party to the security agreement, subject to certain limitations. 

Other

The Company has a $5 million letter of credit facility, whereby the Company is required to maintain a cash collateral account equal to 103% (110% for non-U.S. dollar denominated letters) of the aggregate stated amount of issued letters of credit and must reimburse any amounts drawn under issued letters of credit. The Company had $2 million of outstanding letters of credit issued under this facility secured by restricted cash, as of September 30, 2022. Additionally, the Company had $3 million of locally issued bank guarantees and letters of credit as of September 30, 2022, to support various tax appeals, customs arrangements and other obligations at its local affiliates.

NOTE 9. Employee Benefit Plans
The Company's net periodic benefit costs for all defined benefit plans for the three month periods ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:
U.S. PlansNon-U.S. Plans
(In millions)2022202120222021
Costs Recognized in Income:
Pension service (cost):
Service cost
$ $ $ $(1)
Pension financing benefits (cost):
Interest cost
$(5)$(5)$(2)$(1)
Expected return on plan assets10 9 2 2 
Amortization of losses and other
— — — (1)
Total pension financing benefits:5 4 — — 
Net pension benefit (cost)$5 $4 $— $(1)
The Company's net periodic benefit costs for all defined benefit plans for the nine month periods ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:
U.S. PlansNon-U.S. Plans
(In millions)2022202120222021
Costs Recognized in Income:
Pension service (cost):
Service cost
$ $ $(1)$(1)
Pension financing benefits (costs):
Interest cost
$(15)$(13)$(5)$(4)
Expected return on plan assets30 28 6 6 
Amortization of losses and other
— (2)(1)(2)
Total pension financing benefits:15 13 — — 
Net pension benefit (cost)$15 $13 $(1)$(1)
Pension financing benefits are classified as Other income, net on the Company's condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2022, cash contributions to the Company's defined benefit plans were $5 million related to its non-U.S. plans. The Company estimates that total cash contributions to its non-U.S. defined benefit pension plans during 2022 will be $6 million.
13



NOTE 10. Income Taxes
During the nine month period ended September 30, 2022, the Company recorded a provision for income tax of $24 million which reflects income tax expense in countries where the Company is profitable, accrued withholding taxes, and the inability to record a tax benefit for pretax losses and/or recognize expense for pretax income in certain jurisdictions, including the United States ("U.S."), due to valuation allowances. Pre-tax losses in jurisdictions where valuation allowances are maintained and no income tax benefits are recognized totaled $16 million and $48 million for the nine month periods ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, resulting in an increase in the Company's effective tax rate.

The Company's provision for income taxes in interim periods is computed by applying an estimated annual effective tax rate against income before income taxes, excluding equity in net income of non-consolidated affiliates for the period. Effective tax rates vary from period to period as separate calculations are performed for those countries where the Company's operations are profitable and whose results continue to be tax-effected and for those countries where full deferred tax valuation allowances exist and are maintained.

The need to maintain valuation allowances against deferred tax assets in the U.S. and other affected countries will cause variability in the Company’s quarterly and annual effective tax rates. Full valuation allowances against deferred tax assets in the U.S. and applicable foreign countries will be maintained until sufficient positive evidence exists to reduce or eliminate them. The Company evaluates its deferred income taxes quarterly to determine if valuation allowances are required or should be adjusted.

During the third quarter of 2022, there were no material changes in unrecognized tax benefits. The long-term portion of uncertain income tax positions (including interest) of $8 million is included in other non-current liabilities on the condensed consolidated balance sheet, while $3 million is reflected as a reduction of a deferred tax asset related to a net operating loss included in other non-current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Outstanding income tax refund claims, related primarily to India and Brazil jurisdictions, total $6 million as of September 30, 2022 and are included in other non-current assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
14



NOTE 11. Stockholders’ Equity and Non-controlling Interests
Non-Controlling Interests
The Company's non-controlling interests are as follows:
September 30,December 31,
(In millions)20222021
Shanghai Visteon Automotive Electronics, Co., Ltd.$43 $45 
Yanfeng Visteon Automotive Electronics Co., Ltd.32 33 
Changchun Visteon FAWAY Automotive Electronics, Co., Ltd.
17 20 
Other
2 2 
$94 $100 
15



Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)

Changes in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”) and reclassifications out of AOCI by component include:
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
(In millions)2022202120222021
Changes in AOCI:
Beginning balance
$(265)$(305)$(229)$(304)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassification, net of tax
(29)(7)